The Burden of Viruses in Pneumonia Associated With Acute Respiratory Failure: An Underappreciated Issue. (Freeman)

Shorr AF, et al. The Burden of Viruses in Pneumonia Associated With Acute Respiratory Failure: An Underappreciated Issue. Chest. 2018 Jul; 154(1):84-90.

BACKGROUND: Pneumonia associated with mechanical ventilation (MV) results in substantial mortality and represents a leading reason for the use of antibiotics. The role of viruses in this setting is unclear. Identifying a viral cause in such instances could facilitate antibiotic stewardship.

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Enteral Nutrition and Acid-Suppressive Therapy in the PICU: Impact on the Risk of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia. (Emrath)

Albert BD, et al. Enteral Nutrition and Acid-Suppressive Therapy in the PICU: Impact on the Risk of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2016 Oct;17(10):924-929.

OBJECTIVE: Enteral nutrition has been implicated as a risk factor for ventilator-associated pneumonia. We explored the prevalence of ventilator-associated pneumonia and its association with clinical and nutrition-related therapies in mechanically ventilated children.

DESIGN: Prospective, multicenter, cohort study.

SETTING: Fifty-nine PICU in 15 countries.

PATIENTS: Children less than 18 years old, mechanically ventilated for more than 48 hours.

INTERVENTIONS: None. Multivariable logistic regression to determine factors associated with ventilator-associated pneumonia.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAJOR RESULTS: Data are presented as median (interquartile range) or counts (%). We enrolled 1,245 subjects (45% women; 42% surgical), age 20 months (4-84 mo), and duration of mechanical ventilation 7 days (3-13 d). Culture-positive ventilator-associated pneumonia was diagnosed in 80 patients (6.4%); duration of mechanical ventilation for this subgroup was 17 days (8-39 d). Enteral nutrition was delivered in 985 patients (79%), initiated within 48 hours in 592 patients (60%), and via postpyloric route in 354 patients (36%). Acid-suppressive agents were used in 763 patients (61%). The duration of enteral nutrition (p = 0.21), route (gastric vs postpyloric) of delivery (p = 0.94), severity of illness (p = 0.17), and diagnostic category on admission (p = 0.31) were not associated with ventilator-associated pneumonia. After adjusting for enteral nutrition days, illness severity, and site, ventilator-associated pneumonia was significantly associated with mechanical ventilation more than 10 days (odds ratio, 3.7; 95% CI, 2.2-6.5; p < 0.001), PICU length of stay more than 10 days (odds ratio, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1-3.1; p = 0.029), and the use of acid-suppressive medication (odds ratio, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2-3.6; p = 0.011).

CONCLUSIONS: Ventilator-associated pneumonia was diagnosed in 6.5% of mechanically ventilated children in a heterogeneous multicenter cohort. We did not find a link between enteral nutrition duration or route of delivery and ventilator-associated pneumonia. In addition to duration of mechanical ventilation and length of PICU stay, the use of acid-suppressive therapy independently increased the likelihood of developing ventilator-associated pneumonia in this population. This association must be further explored in clinical trials.

An Evaluation of Various Ventilator-Associated Infection Criteria in a PICU. (Coleman)

Beardsley AL, et al. An Evaluation of Various Ventilator-Associated Infection Criteria in a PICU. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2016 Jan;17(1):73-80.

OBJECTIVE: To describe characteristics and overlap associated with various ventilator-associated infection criteria in the PICU.

DESIGN: Retrospective observational study.

SETTING: A quaternary care children’s hospital PICU.

PATIENTS: Children ventilated more than 48 hours, excluding patients with tracheostomy.

INTERVENTIONS: None.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Ventilator-associated infection, including pneumonia, infection-related ventilator-associated condition, tracheobronchitis, and lower respiratory tract infection were defined according to criteria from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or medical literature. Clinical data were abstracted to assign diagnoses of each ventilator-associated infection. In 300 episodes of mechanical ventilation, there were 30 individual episodes of ventilator-associated infection. Nine episodes met more than one definition. Rates per 1,000 ventilator days were 2.60 for ventilator-associated pneumonia, 2.16 for infection-related ventilator-associated condition, 5.19 for ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis, and 6.92 for lower respiratory tract infection. The rate of any ventilator-associated infection was 12.98 per 1,000 ventilator days. Individual criteria had similar risk factors and outcomes. Risk factors for development of any ventilator-associated infection included older age (p = 0.003) and trauma (p = 0.007), while less cardiac surgery patients developed ventilator-associated infection (p = 0.015). On multivariate analysis, trauma was the only independent risk factor (adjusted odds ratio, 3.10; 95% CI, 1.15-8.38). Developing any ventilator-associated infection was associated with longer duration of mechanical ventilation (p < 0.001) and longer PICU length of stay (p < 0.001) but not PICU mortality (p = 0.523).

CONCLUSIONS: There is little overlap in diagnosis of various ventilator-associated infection. However, the risk factors and outcomes associated with individual criteria are similar, indicating that they may have validity in identifying true pathology. Ventilator-associated infection in general is likely a larger problem than indicated by low hospital-reported rates of ventilator-associated pneumonia. There is clinical confusion due to the presence of several diagnostic criteria for ventilator-associated infection. Developing a more inclusive and clinically relevant criterion for diagnosing ventilator-associated infection is warranted to accurately assess their impact and improve guidance for clinicians in evaluating and treating ventilator-associated infection.

Effect of mechanical cleaning of endotracheal tubes with sterile urethral catheters to reduce biofilm formation in ventilator patients. (Tarquinio)

Liu W, Zuo Z, Ma R, Zhang X. Effect of mechanical cleaning of endotracheal tubes with sterile urethral catheters to reduce biofilm formation in ventilator patients. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2013 Sep;14(7):e338-43.

Full-text for Children’s and Emory users.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effectiveness of mechanical cleaning with sterile urethral catheters to prevent formation of biofilms on endotracheal tubes.

METHODS: Forty-five children were randomized in equal numbers to endotracheal tube cleaning group for three times a day (group A), twice daily (group B), or to a control group with no endotracheal tube cleaning (group C). Bacterial studies and confocal laser scanning microscopy were performed to assess bacterial colonization and biofilm thickness on the internal surface of the endotracheal tube.

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