Diagnostic Accuracy of Central Venous Catheter Confirmation by Bedside Ultrasound Versus Chest Radiography in Critically Ill Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. (Carroll)

Ablordeppey EA, Drewry AM, Beyer AB, et al. Diagnostic Accuracy of Central Venous Catheter Confirmation by Bedside Ultrasound Versus Chest Radiography in Critically Ill Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Crit Care Med. 2017 Apr;45(4):715-724.

OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the accuracy of bedside ultrasound for confirmation of central venous catheter position and exclusion of pneumothorax compared with chest radiography.

DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, reference lists, conference proceedings and ClinicalTrials.gov.

STUDY SELECTION: Articles and abstracts describing the diagnostic accuracy of bedside ultrasound compared with chest radiography for confirmation of central venous catheters in sufficient detail to reconstruct 2 × 2 contingency tables were reviewed. Primary outcomes included the accuracy of confirming catheter positioning and detecting a pneumothorax. Secondary outcomes included feasibility, interrater reliability, and efficiency to complete bedside ultrasound confirmation of central venous catheter position.

DATA EXTRACTION: Investigators abstracted study details including research design and sonographic imaging technique to detect catheter malposition and procedure-related pneumothorax. Diagnostic accuracy measures included pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio.

DATA SYNTHESIS: Fifteen studies with 1,553 central venous catheter placements were identified with a pooled sensitivity and specificity of catheter malposition by ultrasound of 0.82 (0.77-0.86) and 0.98 (0.97-0.99), respectively. The pooled positive and negative likelihood ratios of catheter malposition by ultrasound were 31.12 (14.72-65.78) and 0.25 (0.13-0.47). The sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound for pneumothorax detection was nearly 100% in the participating studies. Bedside ultrasound reduced mean central venous catheter confirmation time by 58.3 minutes. Risk of bias and clinical heterogeneity in the studies were high.

CONCLUSIONS: Bedside ultrasound is faster than radiography at identifying pneumothorax after central venous catheter insertion. When a central venous catheter malposition exists, bedside ultrasound will identify four out of every five earlier than chest radiography.

Ultrasound Guidance and Other Determinants of Successful Peripheral Artery Catheterization in Critically Ill Children. (Dodd)

Kantor DB, et al. Ultrasound Guidance and Other Determinants of Successful Peripheral Artery Catheterization in Critically Ill Children. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2016 Dec;17(12):1124-1130.

OBJECTIVE: Peripheral arterial catheterization is a common invasive procedure performed in critically ill children. However, the benefits of using ultrasound guidance for this procedure in critically ill children, especially when used by inexperienced trainees, are unclear. Our aims were to evaluate whether the use of ultrasound guidance for the placement of radial arterial catheters reduced time and improved success when compared with the palpation method and also to determine patient and trainee variables that influence procedure outcomes. Finally, we evaluated whether adoption of ultrasound guidance among trainees comes at the expense of learning landmark-based methods.

DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort.

SETTING: University affiliated PICU.

PATIENTS: A total of 208 procedures performed by 45 trainees in 192 unique patients (1 mo to 20 yr old) were observed.

INTERVENTION: Implementation of ultrasound curriculum.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The main outcome measures were time and number of attempts required for the procedure. Compared with palpation method, ultrasound guidance was associated with reduced procedure time (8.1 ± 5.2 min compared with 16.5 ± 8.8 min; p < 0.001), reduced number of attempts (3.1 ± 2.6 attempts compared with 6.9 ± 4.2 attempts; p < 0.001), and improved first attempt success rate (28% compared with 11%; p = 0.001) even after adjusting for key confounders in multivariate random effects models. The factors most likely to interfere with peripheral arterial catheterization are patient age, patient systolic blood pressure, patient body mass index, degree of fluid overload, and trainee months in fellowship. The use of ultrasound guidance mitigates the influence of each of these factors. We found no evidence that the adoption of ultrasound guidance by trainees is associated with reduced proficiency in landmark-based methods.

CONCLUSIONS: The use of ultrasound guidance by trainees for radial artery catheterization in critically ill children is associated with improved outcomes compared with the palpation method.

Hemodynamic Bedside Ultrasound Image Quality and Interpretation After Implementation of a Training Curriculum for Pediatric Critical Care Medicine Providers. (Williams)

Conlon TW, Ishizuka M, Himebauch AS, Cohen MS, Berg RA, Nishisaki A. Hemodynamic Bedside Ultrasound Image Quality and Interpretation After Implementation of a Training Curriculum for Pediatric Critical Care Medicine Providers. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2016 Jul;17(7):598-604.

OBJECTIVE: Bedside ultrasound for hemodynamic evaluation in critically ill children is increasingly recognized as an important skill for pediatric critical care medicine providers. Our institution implemented a training curriculum leading to institutional credentialing for pediatric critical care providers in nonprocedural bedside ultrasound core applications. We hypothesized that hemodynamic studies performed or supervised by credentialed providers (credentialed providers group) have better image quality and greater accuracy in interpretation than studies performed by non-credentialed providers without supervision (non-credentialed providers group).

DESIGN: Retrospective descriptive study.

SETTING: Single-center tertiary non-cardiac 55-bed PICU in a children’s hospital.

PATIENTS: Patients from October 2013 to January 2015, with hemodynamic bedside ultrasound performed and interpreted by pediatric critical care providers exposed to bedside ultrasound training.

INTERVENTIONS: A cardiologist blinded to performer scored hemodynamic bedside ultrasound image quality for five core cardiac views (excellent = 3, good = 2, fair = 1, unacceptable = 0; median = quality score) and interpretation within 5 hemodynamic domains (agreement = 3, minor disagreement = 2, major disagreement = 1; median = interpretation score), as well as a global assessment of interpretation.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Eighty-one studies (45 in the credentialed providers group and 36 in the non-credentialed providers group) were evaluated. There was no statistically significant difference in quality score between groups (median: 1.4 [interquartile range: 0.8-1.8] vs median: 1.2 [interquartile range: 0.75-1.6]; p = 0.14]. Studies in the credentialed providers group had higher interpretation score than those in the non-credentialed providers group (median: 3 [interquartile range: 2.5-3) vs median: 2.67 [interquartile range: 2.25-3]; p = 0.04). Major disagreement between critical care provider and cardiology review occurred in 25 of 283 hemodynamic domains assessed (8.8%), with no statistically significant difference between credentialed providers and non-credentialed providers groups (6.1% vs 11.9%; p = 0.12).

CONCLUSION: Hemodynamic bedside ultrasound performed or supervised by credentialed pediatric critical care providers had more accurate interpretation than studies performed by unsupervised non-credentialed providers. A rigorous pediatric critical care medicine bedside ultrasound credentialing program can train intensivists to attain adequate images and interpret those images appropriately.

Intravenous Fluid Bolus Prior to Neonatal and Infant Lumbar Puncture: A Sonographic Assessment of the Subarachnoid Space After Intravenous Fluid Administration.

Rankin J, Wang VJ, Goodarzian F, Lai HA. Intravenous Fluid Bolus Prior to Neonatal and Infant Lumbar Puncture: A Sonographic Assessment of the Subarachnoid Space After Intravenous Fluid Administration. JAMA Pediatr. 2016 Mar 7;170(3):e154636.

IMPORTANCE: Neonatal and infant lumbar puncture is a commonly performed procedure in emergency departments, yet traumatic and unsuccessful lumbar punctures occur 30% to 50% of the time. Dehydration may be a risk factor for unsuccessful lumbar punctures, but to our knowledge, no studies have investigated the use of intravenous (IV) fluid bolus prior to lumbar puncture.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of IV fluid bolus administration with the sonographic measure of the neonatal and infant lumbar subarachnoid space. We hypothesized that IV fluids would increase subarachnoid space size.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective observational study conducted from August 2012 to April 2015.The study took place at the emegency department of the Children’s Hospital Los Angeles, an urban pediatric emergency department with an annual census of 76 000 visits.A convenience sample of patients aged 0 to 3 months were enrolled if they had a clinical presentation consistent with pyloric stenosis. This population was used as a proxy because they are similar in age to patients undergoing lumbar puncture for evaluation of neonatal fever and are routinely given IV fluids for dehydration.

EXPOSURES: Patients with a sonographic diagnosis of pyloric stenosis underwent additional ultrasonography evaluation to determine the size of the subarachnoid space before and after IV fluids.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Primary outcomes included the difference in the size of the subarachnoid space in millimeters squared before and 1 hour after administration of an IV fluid bolus in the emergency department. Interobserver consistency for the subarachnoid space measurement between attending radiologists was measured using intraclass correlation coefficient. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to examine changes in subarachnoid space measurements (millimeters squared).

RESULTS: The study sample consisted of 40 patients with a mean (SD) age of 37 (11.3) days (range, 15-71 days). The mean (SD) size of the subarachnoid space before and 1 hour after IV fluid bolus was 37.8 (11.1) mm2 and 36.9 (11.2) mm2 respectively (P = .42). The intraclass correlation coefficient ranged from 0.96 to 0.99 (95% CI, 0.90-0.99).

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Intravenous fluid boluses were not associated with a significant increase in the sonographic measure of the neonatal and infant subarachnoid space.

Trendelenburg position does not increase cross-Sectional area of the internal jugular vein predictably. (Kamat)

Chest. 2013 Feb 7. doi: 10.1378/chest.11-2462. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 23392444

BACKGROUND: The Trendelenburg position is used to distend the central veins, improving both success and safety of vascular cannulation. The purpose of this study was to measure the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the internal jugular vein (IJV) in three different positions using surface ultrasound.

METHODS: Fifty one subjects were enrolled. A Sonosite Titan 180 or M-Turbo portable ultrasound machine with a 10.5 mHz broadband linear surface probe was used. We measured the CSA of the IJV (at end-expiration at the level of the cricoid cartilage) in three positions: 15 degrees reverse Trendelenburg, supine, and 15 degrees Trendelenburg.

RESULTS: The mean CSA at 15 degrees reverse Trendelenburg was 0.83 cm2 (Std Dev 0.86), in the supine position it was 1.25 cm2 (Std Dev 0.98) and at minus 15 degrees Trendelenburg it was 1.47 cm2 (Std Dev 1.03). Moving from reverse Trendelenburg to supine, CSA increased 50 percent. In contrast, lowering the head to a Trendelenburg position increased mean CSA only 17 percent. Surprisingly, Trendelenburg positioning reduced CSA in 9 of 51 subjects.

CONCLUSIONS: Trendelenburg positioning augments CSA only modestly, on average, compared with the supine position, and in some patients reduces the CSA. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01099254.

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Supraclavicular ultrasound-guided catheterization of the subclavian vein in pediatric and neonatal ICUs: a feasibility study. (Ruth)

Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2013 May;14(4):351-5. PMID: 23392376

OBJECTIVES: To assess the feasibility of ultrasound-guided supraclavicular catheterization of the subclavian vein in pediatric and neonatal ICU.

DESIGN: Retrospective cohort.

SETTING: Ten-bed pediatric medicosurgical ICU and 15-bed neonatal ICU.

PATIENTS: Children and newborns undergoing supraclavicular ultrasound-guided subclavian vein catheterization from March 2010 to September 2010.

MEASUREMENTS: The placement of central venous catheter in ICU was carried out either by one of the experts in ultrasound-guided puncture of the unit or by a novice completely supervised by the expert. The success and the early complications were recorded. A comparison between novice and expert operators was also made.

RESULTS: Forty-two catheters were placed in 40 children. The median age and median weight were, respectively, 6.5 months and 6.5 kg. The success rate was 97.6% (one failure) and the early complication rate was 4.7% (one pneumothorax and one arterial puncture); 61% of children breathed spontaneously during the catheter placement. No significant difference was found between expert and novice operators.

CONCLUSIONS: Supraclavicular ultrasound-guided catheterization of the subclavian vein in pediatric and neonatal ICU seems to be a promising technique in the context of emergency. It is safe, reliable, with few early complications. Furthermore, it does not compromise the airways of the patient owing to the low level of sedation needed for its placement.

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