Can the Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction-2 Score on Day 1 Be Used in Clinical Criteria for Sepsis in Children? (Coleman)

Leclerc F, Duhamel A, Deken V, Grandbastien B, Leteurtre S; Groupe Francophone de Réanimation et Urgences Pédiatriques (GFRUP). Can the Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction-2 Score on Day 1 Be Used in Clinical Criteria for Sepsis in Children? Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2017 Aug. 18 (8): 758-763.

OBJECTIVE: A recent task force has proposed the use of Sequential Organ Failure Assessment in clinical criteria for sepsis in adults. We sought to evaluate the predictive validity for PICU mortality of the Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction-2 and of the “quick” Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction-2 scores on day 1 in children with suspected infection.

DESIGN: Secondary analysis of the database used for the development and validation of the Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction-2.

SETTINGS: Nine university-affiliated PICUs in Europe.

PATIENTS: Only children with hypotension-low systolic blood pressure or low mean blood pressure using age-adapted cutoffs-and lactatemia greater than 2 mmol/L were considered in shock.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We developed the quick Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction-2 score on day 1 including tachycardia, hypotension, and altered mentation (Glasgow < 11): one point for each variable (range, 0-3). Outcome was mortality at PICU discharge. Discrimination (Area under receiver operating characteristic curve-95% CI) and calibration (goodness of fit test) of the scores were studied. This study included 862 children with suspected infection (median age: 12.3 mo; mortality: n = 60 [7.0%]). Area under the curve of the Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction-2 score on day 1 was 0.91 (0.86-0.96) in children with suspected infection, 0.88 (0.79-0.96) in those with low systolic blood pressure and hyperlactatemia, and 0.91 (0.85-0.97) in those with low mean blood pressure and hyperlactatemia; calibration p value was 0.03, 0.36, and 0.49, respectively. A Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction-2 score on day 1 greater than or equal to 8 reflected an overall risk of mortality greater than or equal to 9.3% in children with suspected infection. Area under the curve of the quick Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction-2 score on day 1 was 0.82 (0.76-0.87) with systolic blood pressure or mean blood pressure; calibration p value was 0.89 and 0.72, respectively. A score greater than or equal to 2 reflected a mortality risk greater than or equal to 19.8% with systolic blood pressure and greater than or equal to 15.9% with mean blood pressure.

CONCLUSION: Among children admitted to PICU with suspected infection, Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction-2 score on day 1 was highly predictive of PICU mortality suggesting its use to standardize definitions and diagnostic criteria of pediatric sepsis. Further studies are needed to determine the usefulness of the quick Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction-2 score on day 1 outside of the PICU.

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Development and Validation of a Score to Predict Mortality in Children Undergoing Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Respiratory Failure: Pediatric Pulmonary Rescue With Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Prediction Score. (Betters)

Bailly DK, et al. Development and Validation of a Score to Predict Mortality in Children Undergoing Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Respiratory Failure: Pediatric Pulmonary Rescue With Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Prediction Score. Crit Care Med. 2017 Jan;45(1):e58-e66.

OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to develop and validate a prognostic score for predicting mortality at the time of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation initiation for children with respiratory failure. Preextracorporeal membrane oxygenation mortality prediction is important for determining center-specific risk-adjusted outcomes and counseling families.

DESIGN: Multivariable logistic regression of a large international cohort of pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients.

SETTING: Multi-institutional data.

PATIENTS: Prognostic score development: A total of 4,352 children more than 7 days to less than 18 years old, with an initial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation run for respiratory failure reported to the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization’s data registry during 2001-2013 were used for derivation (70%) and validation (30%). Bidirectional stepwise logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with mortality. Retained variables were assigned a score based on the odds of mortality with higher scores indicating greater mortality. External validation was accomplished using 2,007 patients from the Pediatric Health Information System dataset.

INTERVENTIONS: None.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The Pediatric Pulmonary Rescue with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Prediction score included mode of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; preextracorporeal membrane oxygenation mechanical ventilation more than 14 days; preextracorporeal membrane oxygenation severity of hypoxia; primary pulmonary diagnostic categories including, asthma, aspiration, respiratory syncytial virus, sepsis-induced respiratory failure, pertussis, and “other”; and preextracorporeal membrane oxygenation comorbid conditions of cardiac arrest, cancer, renal and liver dysfunction. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for internal and external validation datasets were 0.69 (95% CI, 0.67-0.71) and 0.66 (95% CI, 0.63-0.69).

CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric Pulmonary Rescue with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Prediction is a validated tool for predicting in-hospital mortality among children with respiratory failure receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support.

Validity of Different Delirium Assessment Tools for Critically Ill Children: Covariates Matter. (Patel)

Luetz A, et al. Validity of Different Delirium Assessment Tools for Critically Ill Children: Covariates Matter. Crit Care Med. 2016 Nov; 44(11):2060-2069.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate test validity of the Pediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU, the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale, and the newly developed severity scale for the Pediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU; to prospectively assess covariates and their influence on test validity of the scores.

DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study.

SETTING: PICU of a tertiary care medical center.

PATIENTS: Critically ill patients 5 years old or older ventilated or nonventilated with an ICU length of stay of at least 24 hours.

INTERVENTIONS: None.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Patients were scored with the Pediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU and the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale once daily for a maximum of 21 days. Validity was determined by comparing scoring results with the evaluations of the delirium experts who used the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4th Edition, Text Revision, for delirium diagnosis. Sixty-four patients were enrolled and 214 assessments were conducted and included in data analysis. The first assessments within each patient revealed sensitivities of 69.2% for the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale, 76.9% for the Pediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU, and 84.9% for the severity scale for the Pediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU. Specificities were 98% for all scores. Considering repeated measurements, sensitivities decreased to 35.9% for the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale and to 52.3% for the Pediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU. The sensitivity of the severity scale for the Pediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU dropped to 71.8%, which was significantly higher compared to the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale (p = 0.0008). Receiver operator characteristic regression unveiled that sedation and mechanical ventilation had a significant negative effect on the validity of the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale and the severity scale for the Pediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU. Age and gender had a significant impact on the receiver operator characteristic curve of the severity scale for the Pediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU.

CONCLUSIONS: The severity scale for the Pediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU showed the best test validity when used in critically ill children of 5 years old or older. Nevertheless, validity of delirium screening itself depends on patient specific factors. These factors should be taken into consideration when choosing a delirium screening instrument.

Tidal volume and mortality in mechanically ventilated children: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. (Fortenberry)

de Jager P, Burgerhof JG, van Heerde M, et al. Tidal volume and mortality in mechanically ventilated children: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies*. Crit Care Med. 2014 Dec;42(12):2461-72.

Full-text for Children’s and Emory users.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether tidal volume is associated with mortality in critically ill, mechanically ventilated children.

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