Association of Hospital Structure and Complications With Mortality After Pediatric Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation. (Williams)

Nasr VG, Faraoni D, DiNardo JA, Thiagarajan RR. Association of Hospital Structure and Complications With Mortality After Pediatric Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2016 Jul;17(7):684-91.

OBJECTIVES: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is increasingly utilized to provide cardiopulmonary support to critically ill children. Although life-saving in many instances, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. This study evaluates the effect of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation complications and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation hospital characteristics on mortality in neonates and children supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of administrative data.

SETTING: Data from 31 U.S. states included in 2012 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Kids’ Inpatient Database.

PATIENTS: Children treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.


MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Study subject were identified using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Edition Clinical Modification code 39.65 and classified into six diagnostic categories: 1) cardiac surgery, 2) non-surgical heart disease, 3) congenital diaphragmatic hernia, 4) neonatal respiratory failure, 5) pediatric respiratory failure, and 6) sepsis. Demographics, hospital characteristics, and outcome information were used in a multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine factors associated with mortality. We identified 1,465 children treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Overall mortality was 40% (591/1,465). Mortality was independently associated with diagnosis (heart disease: odds ratio, 1.7; p = 0.01; congenital diaphragmatic hernia: odds ratio, 5.1; p < 0.001; and sepsis odds ratio: 2.4; p = 0.003 compared with neonatal respiratory failure) time from hospital admission to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation of more than 10 days (odds ratio, 4.5; p < 0.001) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation complications (renal [odds ratio: 5; p < 0.001] and neurologic [odds ratio, 1.4; p = 0.03] injury). In addition, hospitals with bed size less than 400 had higher mortality (odds ratio, 1.4; p = 0.02). In patients with any extracorporeal membrane oxygenation complication, probability of mortality was lower for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients in larger hospitals, 38% (95% CI, 37-39) versus 44% (95% CI, 43-46) with p value of less than 0.001.

CONCLUSIONS: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation mortality was significantly associated with patient diagnosis, time to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation initiation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation complications, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation hospital bed size. Improved survival in larger hospitals supports centralization of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation services to larger centers.

Unplanned extubations in children: impact on hospital cost and length of stay. (Betters)

Roddy DJ, Spaeder MC, Pastor W, Stockwell DC, Klugman D. Unplanned extubations in children: impact on hospital cost and length of stay. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2015 Jul; 16(6):572-5.

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OBJECTIVE: To determine the attributable hospital cost, both operational and departmental, and length of stay associated with unplanned extubations in children admitted to PICU and cardiac ICU.

DESIGN: Retrospective, matched case-control study.

SETTING: Forty-four-bed PICU and 26-bed cardiac ICU in a 303-bed tertiary care pediatric hospital.

PATIENTS: Cases with an unplanned extubation were retrospectively identified from July 2011 to March 2013. Controls were PICU and cardiac ICU patients admitted over the same time period and were matched at a ratio of 2:1 for age and diagnosis.


MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Forty-eight unplanned extubations were analyzed. There were no differences in patient demographics between the two groups, except the control group had a higher severity of illness as illustrated by a larger Paediatric Index of Mortality II Risk of Mortality. Median total hospital costs were higher in those patients with unplanned extubations as compared with controls ($101,310 vs $64,618; p < 0.001). Patients with an unplanned extubation had longer median ICU length of stay (10 d vs 4.5 d; p < 0.001) and hospital length of stay (16.5 d vs 10 d, p < 0.001).

CONCLUSION: Pediatric patients with unplanned extubations have an associated increase in hospital costs ($36,692/case) and length of stay (6.5 d/case) as compared with age and diagnosis-matched controls. Further efforts are warrant

The use of computed tomography in pediatrics and the associated radiation exposure and estimated cancer risk. (Hebbar)

JAMA Pediatr. 2013 Aug 1;167(8):700-7. PMID: 23754213

IMPORTANCE: Increased use of computed tomography (CT) in pediatrics raises concerns about cancer risk from exposure to ionizing radiation.

OBJECTIVES: To quantify trends in the use of CT in pediatrics and the associated radiation exposure and cancer risk. DESIGN Retrospective observational study.

SETTING: Seven US health care systems. PARTICIPANTS The use of CT was evaluated for children younger than 15 years of age from 1996 to 2010, including 4 857 736 child-years of observation. Radiation doses were calculated for 744 CT scans performed between 2001 and 2011.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Rates of CT use, organ and effective doses, and projected lifetime attributable risks of cancer.

RESULTS: The use of CT doubled for children younger than 5 years of age and tripled for children 5 to 14 years of age between 1996 and 2005, remained stable between 2006 and 2007, and then began to decline. Effective doses varied from 0.03 to 69.2 mSv per scan. An effective dose of 20 mSv or higher was delivered by 14% to 25% of abdomen/pelvis scans, 6% to 14% of spine scans, and 3% to 8% of chest scans. Projected lifetime attributable risks of solid cancer were higher for younger patients and girls than for older patients and boys, and they were also higher for patients who underwent CT scans of the abdomen/pelvis or spine than for patients who underwent other types of CT scans. For girls, a radiation-induced solid cancer is projected to result from every 300 to 390 abdomen/pelvis scans, 330 to 480 chest scans, and 270 to 800 spine scans, depending on age. The risk of leukemia was highest from head scans for children younger than 5 years of age at a rate of 1.9 cases per 10 000 CT scans. Nationally, 4 million pediatric CT scans of the head, abdomen/pelvis, chest, or spine performed each year are projected to cause 4870 future cancers. Reducing the highest 25% of doses to the median might prevent 43% of these cancers.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The increased use of CT in pediatrics, combined with the wide variability in radiation doses, has resulted in many children receiving a high-dose examination. Dose-reduction strategies targeted to the highest quartile of doses could dramatically reduce the number of radiation-induced cancers.

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Risk factors for peripherally inserted central venous catheter complications in children. (Kiran)

JAMA Pediatr. 2013 May 1;167(5):429-35. PMID: 23549677

IMPORTANCE: Peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) are prone to infectious, thrombotic, and mechanical complications. These complications are associated with morbidity, so data are needed to inform quality improvement efforts.

OBJECTIVES: To characterize the epidemiology of and to identify risk factors for complications necessitating removal of PICCs in children. DESIGN Cohort study.

SETTING: Johns Hopkins Children’s Center, Baltimore, Maryland.

PARTICIPANTS: Hospitalized children who had a PICC inserted outside of the neonatal intensive care unit (ICU) from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2009.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Complications necessitating PICC removal as recorded by the PICC Team.

RESULTS: During the study period, 2574 PICCs were placed in 1807 children. Complications necessitating catheter removal occurred in 534 PICCs (20.8%) during 46 021 catheter-days (11.6 complications per 1000 catheter-days). These included accidental dislodgement (4.6%), infection (4.3%), occlusion (3.7%), local infiltration (3.0%), leakage (1.5%), breakage (1.4%), phlebitis (1.2%), and thrombosis (0.5%). From 2003 to 2009, complications decreased by 15% per year (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.85; 95% CI, 0.81-0.89). In adjusted analysis, all noncentral PICC tip locations-midline (IRR 4.59, 95% CI, 3.69-5.69), midclavicular (2.15; 1.54-2.98), and other (3.26; 1.72-6.15)-compared with central tip location were associated with an increased risk of complications. Pediatric ICU exposure and age younger than 1 year were independently associated with complications necessitating PICC removal.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Noncentral PICC tip locations, younger age, and pediatric ICU exposure were independent risk factors for complications necessitating PICC removal. Despite reductions in PICC complications, further efforts are needed to prevent PICC-associated complications in children.

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