Racial and Ethnic Variation in Pediatric Cardiac Extracorporeal Life Support Survival. (Carroll)

Chan T, et al. Racial and Ethnic Variation in Pediatric Cardiac Extracorporeal Life Support Survival. Crit Care Med. 2017 Apr; 45(4):670-678.

OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have suggested an association between nonwhite race and poor outcomes in small subsets of cardiac surgery patients who require extracorporeal life support. This study aims to examine the association of race/ethnicity with mortality in pediatric patients who receive extracorporeal life support for cardiac support.

DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of registry data.

SETTING: Prospectively collected multi-institutional registry data.

SUBJECTS: Data from all North American pediatric patients in the Extracorporeal Life Support International Registry who received extracorporeal life support for cardiac support between 1998 and 2012 were analyzed. Multivariate regression models were constructed to examine the association between race/ethnicity and hospital mortality, adjusting for demographics, diagnosis, pre-extracorporeal life support care, extracorporeal life support variables, and extracorporeal life support-related complications.

INTERVENTIONS: None.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of 7,106 patients undergoing cardiac extracorporeal life support, the majority of patients were of white race (56.9%) with black race (16.7%), Hispanic ethnicity (15.8%), and Asian race (2.8%) comprising the other major race/ethnic groups. The mortality rate was 53.9% (n = 3,831). After adjusting for covariates, multivariate analysis identified black race (relative risk = 1.10; 95% CI, 1.04-1.16) and Hispanic ethnicity (relative risk = 1.08; 95% CI, 1.02-1.14) as independent risk factors for mortality.

CONCLUSIONS: Black race and Hispanic ethnicity are independently associated with mortality in children who require cardiac extracorporeal life support.

Development and Validation of a Score to Predict Mortality in Children Undergoing Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Respiratory Failure: Pediatric Pulmonary Rescue With Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Prediction Score. (Betters)

Bailly DK, et al. Development and Validation of a Score to Predict Mortality in Children Undergoing Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Respiratory Failure: Pediatric Pulmonary Rescue With Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Prediction Score. Crit Care Med. 2017 Jan;45(1):e58-e66.

OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to develop and validate a prognostic score for predicting mortality at the time of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation initiation for children with respiratory failure. Preextracorporeal membrane oxygenation mortality prediction is important for determining center-specific risk-adjusted outcomes and counseling families.

DESIGN: Multivariable logistic regression of a large international cohort of pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients.

SETTING: Multi-institutional data.

PATIENTS: Prognostic score development: A total of 4,352 children more than 7 days to less than 18 years old, with an initial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation run for respiratory failure reported to the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization’s data registry during 2001-2013 were used for derivation (70%) and validation (30%). Bidirectional stepwise logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with mortality. Retained variables were assigned a score based on the odds of mortality with higher scores indicating greater mortality. External validation was accomplished using 2,007 patients from the Pediatric Health Information System dataset.

INTERVENTIONS: None.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The Pediatric Pulmonary Rescue with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Prediction score included mode of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; preextracorporeal membrane oxygenation mechanical ventilation more than 14 days; preextracorporeal membrane oxygenation severity of hypoxia; primary pulmonary diagnostic categories including, asthma, aspiration, respiratory syncytial virus, sepsis-induced respiratory failure, pertussis, and “other”; and preextracorporeal membrane oxygenation comorbid conditions of cardiac arrest, cancer, renal and liver dysfunction. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for internal and external validation datasets were 0.69 (95% CI, 0.67-0.71) and 0.66 (95% CI, 0.63-0.69).

CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric Pulmonary Rescue with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Prediction is a validated tool for predicting in-hospital mortality among children with respiratory failure receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support.

Validity of Different Delirium Assessment Tools for Critically Ill Children: Covariates Matter. (Patel)

Luetz A, et al. Validity of Different Delirium Assessment Tools for Critically Ill Children: Covariates Matter. Crit Care Med. 2016 Nov; 44(11):2060-2069.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate test validity of the Pediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU, the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale, and the newly developed severity scale for the Pediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU; to prospectively assess covariates and their influence on test validity of the scores.

DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study.

SETTING: PICU of a tertiary care medical center.

PATIENTS: Critically ill patients 5 years old or older ventilated or nonventilated with an ICU length of stay of at least 24 hours.

INTERVENTIONS: None.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Patients were scored with the Pediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU and the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale once daily for a maximum of 21 days. Validity was determined by comparing scoring results with the evaluations of the delirium experts who used the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4th Edition, Text Revision, for delirium diagnosis. Sixty-four patients were enrolled and 214 assessments were conducted and included in data analysis. The first assessments within each patient revealed sensitivities of 69.2% for the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale, 76.9% for the Pediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU, and 84.9% for the severity scale for the Pediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU. Specificities were 98% for all scores. Considering repeated measurements, sensitivities decreased to 35.9% for the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale and to 52.3% for the Pediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU. The sensitivity of the severity scale for the Pediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU dropped to 71.8%, which was significantly higher compared to the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale (p = 0.0008). Receiver operator characteristic regression unveiled that sedation and mechanical ventilation had a significant negative effect on the validity of the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale and the severity scale for the Pediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU. Age and gender had a significant impact on the receiver operator characteristic curve of the severity scale for the Pediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU.

CONCLUSIONS: The severity scale for the Pediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU showed the best test validity when used in critically ill children of 5 years old or older. Nevertheless, validity of delirium screening itself depends on patient specific factors. These factors should be taken into consideration when choosing a delirium screening instrument.

Factors Associated With Mortality in Neonates Requiring Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Cardiac Indications: Analysis of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry Data. (Duke)

Ford MA, et al. Factors Associated With Mortality in Neonates Requiring Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Cardiac Indications: Analysis of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry Data. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2016 Sep;17(9):860-70.

OBJECTIVES: Survival among neonates supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for cardiac indications is 39%. Previous single-center studies have identified factors associated with mortality, but a comprehensive multivariate analysis is not available for this population. Understanding factors associated with mortality may help design treatment strategies, determine optimal timing for cannulation, and inform patient selection. This study identifies factors associated with mortality in neonates supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for cardiac indications.

DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study.

SETTING: Two hundred and thirty U.S. and international centers reporting extracorporeal membrane oxygenation data to the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization.

SUBJECTS: Four thousand and four seventy one neonates with congenital and acquired cardiac disease supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for cardiac indications during 2001-2011.

INTERVENTIONS: None.

MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: The primary outcome measure was mortality prior to hospital discharge. Overall hospital mortality was 59%. Demographic and preextracorporeal membrane oxygenation factors associated with mortality were evaluated in a multivariable model. Factors associated with death prior to hospital discharge included lower body weight, earlier era, single ventricle physiology, lower preextracorporeal membrane oxygenation arterial pH, and longer time from intubation to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cannulation. Lower pH was associated with increased mortality regardless of cardiac diagnosis and surgical complexity. The majority of survivors separated from extracorporeal membrane oxygenation less than 8 days after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation deployment.

CONCLUSIONS: Mortality for neonates supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for cardiac indications is high. Severity of preextracorporeal membrane oxygenation acidosis was independently associated with increased risk of mortality. Earlier initiation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation may reduce the degree and duration of acidosis and may improve survival. Further studies are needed to determine optimal timing of cannulation in this population.

Risk factors for first cerebrospinal fluid shunt infection: findings from a multi-center prospective cohort study. (Kamat)

Simon TD, Butler J, Whitlock KB, et al. Risk factors for first cerebrospinal fluid shunt infection: findings from a multi-center prospective cohort study. J Pediatr. 2014 Jun;164(6):1462-1468.e2.

OBJECTIVE: To quantify the extent to which cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt revisions are associated with increased risk of CSF shunt infection, after adjusting for patient factors that may contribute to infection risk.

STUDY DESIGN: We used the Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network registry to assemble a large prospective 6-center cohort of 1036 children undergoing initial CSF shunt placement between April 2008 and January 2012. The primary outcome of interest was first CSF shunt infection. Data for initial CSF shunt placement and all subsequent CSF shunt revisions prior to first CSF shunt infection, where applicable, were obtained. The risk of first infection was estimated using a multivariable Cox proportional hazard model accounting for patient characteristics and CSF shunt revisions, and is reported using hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CI.

RESULTS: Of the 102 children who developed first infection within 12 months of placement, 33 (32%) followed one or more CSF shunt revisions. Baseline factors independently associated with risk of first infection included: gastrostomy tube (HR 2.0, 95% CI, 1.1, 3.3), age 6-12 months (HR 0.3, 95% CI, 0.1, 0.8), and prior neurosurgery (HR 0.4, 95% CI, 0.2, 0.9). After controlling for baseline factors, infection risk was most significantly associated with the need for revision (1 revision vs none, HR 3.9, 95% CI, 2.2, 6.5; ≥2 revisions, HR 13.0, 95% CI, 6.5, 24.9).

CONCLUSIONS: This study quantifies the elevated risk of infection associated with shunt revisions observed in clinical practice. To reduce risk of infection risk, further work should optimize revision procedures.

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