Limited echocardiography-guided therapy in subacute shock is associated with change in management and improved outcomes. (Dugan)

Kanji HD, McCallum J, Sirounis D, MacRedmond R, Moss R, Boyd JH. Limited echocardiography-guided therapy in subacute shock is associated with change in management and improved outcomes. J Crit Care. 2014 Oct;29(5):700-5.

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PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to compare the effect of limited echocardiography (LE)-guided therapy to standard management on 28-day mortality, intravenous fluid prescription, and inotropic dosing following early resuscitation for shock.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred twenty critically ill patients with undifferentiated shock from a quaternary intensive care unit were included in the study. The LE group consisted of 110 consecutive patients prospectively studied over a 12-month period receiving LE-guided management. The standard management group consisted of 110 consecutive patients retrospectively studied with shock immediately prior to the LE intervention.

RESULTS: In the LE group, fluid restriction was recommended in 71 (65%) patients and initiation of dobutamine in 27 (25%). Fluid prescription during the first 24 hours was significantly lower in LE patients (49 [33-74] vs 66 [42-100] mL/kg, P = .01), whereas 55% more LE patients received dobutamine (22% vs 12%, P = .01). The LE patients had improved 28-day survival (66% vs 56%, P = .04), a reduction in stage 3 acute kidney injury (20% vs 39%), and more days alive and free of renal support (28 [9.7-28] vs 25 [5-28], P = .04).

CONCLUSIONS: Limited echocardiography-guided management following early resuscitation is associated with improved survival, less fluid, and increased inotropic prescription. A prospective randomized control trial is required to verify these results.

Fluid resuscitation in septic shock the effect of increasing fluid balance on mortality. (Ruth)

Sadaka F, Juarez M, Naydenov S, O’Brien J. Fluid resuscitation in septic shock the effect of increasing fluid balance on mortality. J Intensive Care Med. 2013 Feb 27;29(4):213-217. [Epub ahead of print]

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PURPOSE: To determine whether progressively increasing fluid balance after initial fluid resuscitation for septic shock is associated with increased mortality.

METHODS: A retrospective review of the use of intravenous fluids in patients with septic shock in a large university affiliated hospital with 56 medical-surgical intensive care unit beds. We analyzed the data of 350 patients with septic shock who were managed according to the Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines. Based on net fluid balance at 24 hours, we examined the results of increase in positive fluid balance on the risk of in-hospital mortality. Patients were divided into 4 groups based on the amount of fluid balance by 24 hours, based on 6-L aliquots.

RESULTS: At 24 hours, the average fluid balance was +6.5 L. After correcting for age and sequential organ failure assessment score, a more positive fluid balance at 24 hours significantly increased the risk of in-hospital mortality. Using Cox proportional hazard analysis, excess 12-, 18-, and 24-L positive fluid balance had higher risk of mortality than those patients with a neutral to positive 6-L fluid balance (reference group). Adjusted hazard ratios, 1.519 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.353-1.685), 1.740 (95% CI, 1.467-2.013), and 1.620 (95% CI, 1.197-2.043), respectively, P < .05.

CONCLUSION: In patients with septic shock resuscitated according to current guidelines, a more positive fluid balance at 24 hours is associated with an increase in the risk of mortality. Optimal survival occurred at neutral fluid balance and up to 6-L positive fluid balance at 24 hours after the development of septic shock.

 

Re-thinking resuscitation: leaving blood pressure cosmetics behind and moving forward to permissive hypotension and a tissue perfusion-based approach. (Kamat)

Dünser MW, Takala J, Brunauer A, Bakker J. Re-thinking resuscitation: leaving blood pressure cosmetics behind and moving forward to permissive hypotension and a tissue perfusion-based approach. Crit Care. 2013 Oct 8;17(5):326.

“Definitions of shock and resuscitation endpoints traditionally focus on blood pressures and cardiac output. This carries a high risk of overemphasizing systemic hemodynamics at the cost of tissue perfusion. In line with novel shock definitions and evidence of the lack of a correlation between macro- and microcirculation in shock, we recommend that macrocirculatory resuscitation endpoints, particularly arterial and central venous pressure as well as cardiac output, be reconsidered. In this viewpoint article, we propose a three-step approach of resuscitation endpoints in shock of all origins. This approach targets only a minimum individual and context-sensitive mean arterial blood pressure (for example, 45 to 50 mm Hg) to preserve heart and brain perfusion. Further resuscitation is exclusively guided by endpoints of tissue perfusion irrespectively of the presence of arterial hypotension (‘permissive hypotension’). Finally, optimization of individual tissue (for example, renal) perfusion is targeted. Prospective clinical studies are necessary to confirm the postulated benefits of targeting these resuscitation endpoints.”

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Does the central venous pressure predict fluid responsiveness? An updated meta-analysis and a plea for some common sense. (Dugan)

Crit Care Med. 2013 Jul;41(7):1774-81. PMID: 23774337

BACKGROUND: Despite a previous meta-analysis that concluded that central venous pressure should not be used to make clinical decisions regarding fluid management, central venous pressure continues to be recommended for this purpose. AIM: : To perform an updated meta-analysis incorporating recent studies that investigated indices predictive of fluid responsiveness. A priori subgroup analysis was planned according to the location where the study was performed (ICU or operating room).

DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, and citation review of relevant primary and review articles.

STUDY SELECTION: Clinical trials that reported the correlation coefficient or area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) between the central venous pressure and change in cardiac performance following an intervention that altered cardiac preload. From 191 articles screened, 43 studies met our inclusion criteria and were included for data extraction. The studies included human adult subjects, and included healthy controls (n = 1) and ICU (n = 22) and operating room (n = 20) patients.

DATA EXTRACTION: Data were abstracted on study characteristics, patient population, baseline central venous pressure, the correlation coefficient, and/or the AUC between central venous pressure and change in stroke volume index/cardiac index and the percentage of fluid responders. Meta-analytic techniques were used to summarize the data.

DATA SYNTHESIS: Overall 57% ± 13% of patients were fluid responders. The summary AUC was 0.56 (95% CI, 0.54-0.58) with no heterogenicity between studies. The summary AUC was 0.56 (95% CI, 0.52-0.60) for those studies done in the ICU and 0.56 (95% CI, 0.54-0.58) for those done in the operating room. The summary correlation coefficient between the baseline central venous pressure and change in stroke volume index/cardiac index was 0.18 (95% CI, 0.1-0.25), being 0.28 (95% CI, 0.16-0.40) in the ICU patients, and 0.11 (95% CI, 0.02-0.21) in the operating room patients.

CONCLUSIONS: There are no data to support the widespread practice of using central venous pressure to guide fluid therapy. This approach to fluid resuscitation should be abandoned.

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