Cerebral Oximetry During Cardiac Arrest: A Multicenter Study of Neurologic Outcomes and Survival. (Emrath)

Parnia S, et al. Cerebral Oximetry During Cardiac Arrest: A Multicenter Study of Neurologic Outcomes and Survival. Crit Care Med. 2016 Apr 11. [Epub ahead of print]

OBJECTIVES: Cardiac arrest is associated with morbidity and mortality because of cerebral ischemia. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that higher regional cerebral oxygenation during resuscitation is associated with improved return of spontaneous circulation, survival, and neurologic outcomes at hospital discharge. We further examined the validity of regional cerebral oxygenation as a test to predict these outcomes.

DESIGN: Multicenter prospective study of in-hospital cardiac arrest.

SETTING: Five medical centers in the United States and the United Kingdom.

PATIENTS: Inclusion criteria are as follows: in-hospital cardiac arrest, age 18 years old or older, and prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation greater than or equal to 5 minutes. Patients were recruited consecutively during working hours between August 2011 and September 2014. Survival with a favorable neurologic outcome was defined as a cerebral performance category 1-2.

INTERVENTIONS: Cerebral oximetry monitoring.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Among 504 in-hospital cardiac arrest events, 183 (36%) met inclusion criteria. Overall, 62 of 183 (33.9%) achieved return of spontaneous circulation, whereas 13 of 183 (7.1%) achieved cerebral performance category 1-2 at discharge. Higher mean ± SD regional cerebral oxygenation was associated with return of spontaneous circulation versus no return of spontaneous circulation (51.8% ± 11.2% vs 40.9% ± 12.3%) and cerebral performance category 1-2 versus cerebral performance category 3-5 (56.1% ± 10.0% vs 43.8% ± 12.8%) (both p < 0.001). Mean regional cerebral oxygenation during the last 5 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation best predicted the return of spontaneous circulation (area under the curve, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.69-0.83); regional cerebral oxygenation greater than or equal to 25% provided 100% sensitivity (95% CI, 94-100) and 100% negative predictive value (95% CI, 79-100); regional cerebral oxygenation greater than or equal to 65% provided 99% specificity (95% CI, 95-100) and 93% positive predictive value (95% CI, 66-100) for return of spontaneous circulation. Time with regional cerebral oxygenation greater than 50% during cardiopulmonary resuscitation best predicted cerebral performance category 1-2 (area under the curve, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.70-0.88). Specifically, greater than or equal to 60% cardiopulmonary resuscitation time with regional cerebral oxygenation greater than 50% provided 77% sensitivity (95% CI,:46-95), 72% specificity (95% CI, 65-79), and 98% negative predictive value (95% CI, 93-100) for cerebral performance category 1-2.

CONCLUSIONS: Cerebral oximetry allows real-time, noninvasive cerebral oxygenation monitoring during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Higher cerebral oxygenation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation is associated with return of spontaneous circulation and neurologically favorable survival to hospital discharge. Achieving higher regional cerebral oxygenation during resuscitation may optimize the chances of cardiac arrest favorable outcomes.

Accuracy of Pulse Oximeters Intended for Hypoxemic Pediatric Patients.

Harris BU, et al. Accuracy of Pulse Oximeters Intended for Hypoxemic Pediatric Patients.Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2016 Feb 24. [Epub ahead of print]

OBJECTIVES: Prior studies have shown inaccuracies in pulse oximetry readings at saturations less than 85%; however, no large studies have evaluated new sensors marketed for these low saturations. This study’s purpose was to evaluate two sensors with claims of improved accuracy in children with saturations less than 85%.

DESIGN: Prospective observational study.

SETTING: Single institution; cardiac catheterization laboratory, and operating room.

PATIENTS: Fifty patients weighing 3-20 kg with baseline saturations less than 90% undergoing surgical or catheterization procedure.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Data collected included demographics, diagnosis, continuous saturations from three different pulse oximeters (Masimo LNCS [Masimo, Irvine, CA], Masimo Blue [Masimo], and Nellcor Max-I [Medtronic, Dublin, reland]) and up to four blood samples for co-oximetry as the gold-standard arterial oxygen saturation. Analysis included scatter plots, smoothed regression estimates of mean continuous saturation levels plotted against corresponding arterial oxygen saturation values, and Bland-Altman plots. Bland-Altman analysis indicated increasing levels of bias and variability for decreasing arterial oxygen saturation levels for all three sensors, with a statistically significant increase in mean difference observed for decreasing arterial oxygen saturation level. The Masimo Blue sensor had the lowest mean difference, SD and Bland-Altman limits in patients with saturations less than or equal to 85%. At saturation range of less than or equal to 85% and greater than 75%, 14% of the samples obtained from Masimo Blue, 24% of the readings from the Nellcor, and 31% from the Masimo Standard sensors were greater than or equal to 5% points difference. All three sensors had a further increase in these differences for arterial oxygen saturation values less than 75%.

CONCLUSIONS: The Masimo Blue sensor has improved accuracy at saturations 75-85% versus the Nellcor and Masimo Standard sensors. The accuracy of peripheral capillary oxygen saturation of the Masimo Blue sensor was within 5% points of the arterial oxygen saturation the majority of the time. Currently, at saturations less than or equal to 85%, pulse oximetry alone should not be relied on in making clinical decisions.

Pulse oximetry vs. PaO2 metrics in mechanically ventilated children: Berlin definition of ARDS and mortality risk. (Singh)

Khemani RG, Rubin S, Belani S, et al. Pulse oximetry vs. PaO2 metrics in mechanically ventilated children: Berlin definition of ARDS and mortality risk. Intensive Care Med. 2015 Jan;41(1):94-102.

Full-text for Emory users.

PURPOSE: Requiring PaO2/FiO2 ratio (PF) to define ARDS may bias towards children with cardiovascular dysfunction and hypoxemia. We sought to evaluate (1) the Berlin definition of ARDS in children using PF; (2) the effect of substituting SpO2/FiO2(SF) ratio; (3) differences between patients with and without arterial blood gases; and (4) the ability of SpO2 and PaO2 indices to discriminate ICU mortality.

METHODS: Single center retrospective review (3/2009-4/2013) of mechanically ventilated (MV) children. Initial values for PF, SF, oxygenation index (OI), and oxygen saturation index (OSI) after intubation and average values on day 1 of MV were analyzed against ICU mortality, subgrouped by Berlin severity categories.

RESULTS: Of the 1,833 children included, 129 met Berlin PF ARDS criteria (33 % mortality); 312 met Berlin SF ARDS criteria (22 % mortality). Children with a PaO2 on day 1 of MV had higher mortality and severity of illness, were older, and had more vasoactive-inotropic infusions (p < 0.001). SF could be calculated for 1,201 children (AUC for ICU mortality 0.821), OSI for 1,034 (0.793), PF for 695 (0.706), and OI for 673 (0.739). Average SF on day 1 discriminated mortality better than PF (p = 0.003).

CONCLUSIONS: Berlin PF criteria for ARDS identified less than half of the children with ARDS, favoring those with cardiovascular dysfunction. SF or OSI discriminate ICU mortality as well as PF and OI, double the number of children available for risk stratification, and should be considered for severity of illness scores and included in a pediatric-specific definition of ARDS. Multicenter validation is required.

Correlation of oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio with Pao(2)/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio in a heterogeneous sample of critically ill children. (from Journal of Critical Care, February 2013 – Chandler)

J Crit Care. 2013 Feb 7. pii: S0883-9441(12)00497-2. PMID: 23395312

Full-text access for Children’s and Emory users.

PURPOSE: Oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry (Spo(2))/fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio(2)) (SF) ratio has demonstrated to be an adequate marker for lung disease severity in children under mechanical ventilation. We sought to validate the utility of SF ratio in a population of critically ill children under mechanical ventilation, noninvasive ventilation support, and breathing spontaneously.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective database study was conducted in a pediatric intensive care unit of a university hospital. Children with Spo(2) less than or equal to 97% and an indwelling arterial catheter were included. Simultaneous blood gas and pulse oximetry were collected in a database. Derivation and validation data sets were generated, and a linear mixed modeling was used to derive predictive equations. Model performance and fit were evaluated using the validation data set.

RESULTS: Three thousand two hundred forty-eight blood gas and Spo(2) values from 298 patients were included. 1/SF ratio had a strong linear association with 1/Pao(2)/Fio(2) (PF) ratio in both derivation and validation data sets, given by the equation 1/SF = 0.00164 + 0.521/PF (derivation). Oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry/Fio(2) values for PF criteria of 100, 200, and 300 were 146 (95% confidence interval [CI], 142-150), 236 (95% CI, 228-244), and 296 (95% CI, 285-308). Areas under receiver operating characteristic curves for diagnosis of PF ratio less than 100, 200, and 300 with the SF ratio were 0.978, 0.952, and 0.951, respectively, in the validation data set. CONCLUSIONS: Oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry/Fio(2) ratio is an adequate noninvasive surrogate marker for PF ratio. Oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry/Fio(2) ratio may be an ideal noninvasive marker for patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure.

Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.