Partial Neuromuscular Blockade during Partial Ventilatory Support in Sedated Patients with High Tidal Volumes. (Stulce)

Doorduin J, Nollet JL, Roesthuis LH, et al. Partial Neuromuscular Blockade during Partial Ventilatory Support in Sedated Patients with High Tidal Volumes. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017 Apr 15;195(8):1033-1042.

RATIONALE: Controlled mechanical ventilation is used to deliver lung-protective ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Despite recognized benefits, such as preserved diaphragm activity, partial support ventilation modes may be incompatible with lung-protective ventilation due to high Vt and high transpulmonary pressure. As an alternative to high-dose sedatives and controlled mechanical ventilation, pharmacologically induced neuromechanical uncoupling of the diaphragm should facilitate lung-protective ventilation under partial support modes.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether partial neuromuscular blockade can facilitate lung-protective ventilation while maintaining diaphragm activity under partial ventilatory support.

METHODS: In a proof-of-concept study, we enrolled 10 patients with lung injury and a Vt greater than 8 ml/kg under pressure support ventilation (PSV) and under sedation. After baseline measurements, rocuronium administration was titrated to a target Vt of 6 ml/kg during neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA). Thereafter, patients were ventilated in PSV and NAVA under continuous rocuronium infusion for 2 hours. Respiratory parameters, hemodynamic parameters, and blood gas values were measured.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Rocuronium titration resulted in significant declines of Vt (mean ± SEM, 9.3 ± 0.6 to 5.6 ± 0.2 ml/kg; P < 0.0001), transpulmonary pressure (26.7 ± 2.5 to 10.7 ± 1.2 cm H2O; P < 0.0001), and diaphragm electrical activity (17.4 ± 2.3 to 4.5 ± 0.7 μV; P < 0.0001), and could be maintained under continuous rocuronium infusion. During titration, pH decreased (7.42 ± 0.02 to 7.35 ± 0.02; P < 0.0001), and mean arterial blood pressure increased (84 ± 6 to 99 ± 6 mm Hg; P = 0.0004), as did heart rate (83 ± 7 to 93 ± 8 beats/min; P = 0.0004).

CONCLUSIONS: Partial neuromuscular blockade facilitates lung-protective ventilation during partial ventilatory support, while maintaining diaphragm activity, in sedated patients with lung injury.

Improving Hospital Survival and Reducing Brain Dysfunction at Seven California Community Hospital… (Betters)

Barnes-Daly MA, Phillips G, Ely EW. Improving Hospital Survival and Reducing Brain Dysfunction at Seven California Community Hospitals: Implementing PAD Guidelines Via the ABCDEF Bundle in 6,064 Patients. Crit Care Med. 2017 Feb; 45(2):171-178.

OBJECTIVES: To track compliance by an interprofessional team with the Awakening and Breathing Coordination, Choice of drugs, Delirium monitoring and management, Early mobility, and Family engagement (ABCDEF) bundle in implementing the Pain, Agitation, and Delirium guidelines. The aim was to study the association between ABCDEF bundle compliance and outcomes including hospital survival and delirium-free and coma-free days in community hospitals.

DESIGN: A prospective cohort quality improvement initiative involving ICU patients.

SETTING: Seven community hospitals within California’s Sutter Health System.

PATIENTS: Ventilated and nonventilated general medical and surgical ICU patients enrolled between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2014.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Total and partial bundle compliance were measured daily. Random effects regression was used to determine the association between ABCDEF bundle compliance accounting for total compliance (all or none) or for partial compliance (“dose” or number of bundle elements used) and outcomes of hospital survival and delirium-free and coma-free days, after adjusting for age, severity of illness, and presence of mechanical ventilation. Of 6,064 patients, a total of 586 (9.7%) died before hospital discharge. For every 10% increase in total bundle compliance, patients had a 7% higher odds of hospital survival (odds ratio, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04-1.11; p < 0.001). Likewise, for every 10% increase in partial bundle compliance, patients had a 15% higher hospital survival (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.09-1.22; p < 0.001). These results were even more striking (12% and 23% higher odds of survival per 10% increase in bundle compliance, respectively, p < 0.001) in a sensitivity analysis removing ICU patients identified as receiving palliative care. Patients experienced more days alive and free of delirium and coma with both total bundle compliance (incident rate ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04; p = 0.004) and partial bundle compliance (incident rate ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.09-1.22; p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: The evidence-based ABCDEF bundle was successfully implemented in seven community hospital ICUs using an interprofessional team model to operationalize the Pain, Agitation, and Delirium guidelines. Higher bundle compliance was independently associated with improved survival and more days free of delirium and coma after adjusting for age, severity of illness, and presence of mechanical ventilation.

Early Noninvasive Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist Versus Noninvasive Flow-Triggered Pressure Support Ventilation in Pediatric Acute Respiratory Failure: A Physiologic Randomized Controlled Trial. (Carroll)

Chidini G, et al. Early Noninvasive Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist Versus Noninvasive Flow-Triggered Pressure Support Ventilation in Pediatric Acute Respiratory Failure: A Physiologic Randomized Controlled Trial. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2016 Nov;17(11):e487-e495.

OBJECTIVE: Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist has been shown to improve patient-ventilator interaction in children with acute respiratory failure. Objective of this study was to compare the effect of noninvasive neurally adjusted ventilatory assist versus noninvasive flow-triggered pressure support on patient-ventilator interaction in children with acute respiratory failure, when delivered as a first-line respiratory support.

DESIGN: Prospective randomized crossover physiologic study.

SETTING: Pediatric six-bed third-level PICU.

PATIENTS: Eighteen children with acute respiratory failure needing noninvasive ventilation were enrolled at PICU admission.

INTERVENTIONS: Enrolled children were allocated to receive two 60-minutes noninvasive flow-triggered pressure support and noninvasive neurally adjusted ventilatory assist trials in a crossover randomized sequence.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Primary endpoint was the asynchrony index. Parameters describing patient-ventilator interaction and gas exchange were also considered as secondary endpoints. Noninvasive neurally adjusted ventilatory assist compared to noninvasive flow-triggered pressure support: 1) reduced asynchrony index (p = 0.001) and the number of asynchronies per minute for each type of asynchrony; 2) it increased the neuroventilatory efficiency index (p = 0.001), suggesting better neuroventilatory coupling; 3) reduced inspiratory and expiratory delay times (p = 0.001) as well as lower peak and mean airway pressure (p = 0.006 and p = 0.038, respectively); 4) lowered oxygenation index (p = 0.043). No adverse event was reported.

CONCLUSIONS: In children with mild early acute respiratory failure, noninvasive neurally adjusted ventilatory assist was feasible and safe. Noninvasive neurally adjusted ventilatory assist compared to noninvasive flow-triggered pressure support improved patient-ventilator interaction.

Invasive Mechanical Ventilation and Mortality in Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Multicenter Study. (Betters)

Rowan CM, et al. Invasive Mechanical Ventilation and Mortality in Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Multicenter Study. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2016 Apr;17(4):294-302.

OBJECTIVE: To establish the current respiratory practice patterns in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients and investigate their associations with mortality across multiple centers.

DESIGN: Retrospective cohort between 2009 and 2014.

SETTING: Twelve children’s hospitals in the United States.

PATIENTS: Two hundred twenty-two pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with acute respiratory failure using invasive mechanical ventilation.

INTERVENTIONS: None.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: PICU mortality of our cohort was 60.4%. Mortality at 180 days post PICU discharge was 74%. Length of PICU stay prior to initiation of invasive mechanical ventilation was significantly lower in survivors, and the odds of mortality increased for longer length of PICU stay prior to intubation. A total of 91 patients (41%) received noninvasive ventilation at some point during their PICU stay prior to intubation. Noninvasive ventilation use preintubation was associated with increased mortality (odds ratio, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.2-3.6; p = 0.010). Patients ventilated longer than 15 days had higher odds of death (odds ratio, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3-4.2; p = 0.004). Almost 40% of patients (n = 85) were placed on high-frequency oscillatory ventilation with a mortality of 76.5% (odds ratio, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.7-6.5; p = 0.0004). Of the 20 patients who survived high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, 18 were placed on high-frequency oscillatory ventilation no later than the third day of invasive mechanical ventilation. In this subset of 85 patients, transition to high-frequency oscillatory ventilation within 2 days of the start of invasive mechanical ventilation resulted in a 76% decrease in the odds of death compared with those who transitioned to high-frequency oscillatory ventilation later in the invasive mechanical ventilation course.

CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that perhaps earlier more aggressive critical care interventions in the pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant patient with respiratory failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation may offer an opportunity to improve outcomes.

Effect of Postextubation High-Flow Nasal Cannula vs Conventional Oxygen Therapy on Reintubation in Low-Risk Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Hernández G, et al. Effect of Postextubation High-Flow Nasal Cannula vs Conventional Oxygen Therapy on Reintubation in Low-Risk Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2016 Mar 15. [Epub ahead of print]

IMPORTANCE: Studies of mechanically ventilated critically ill patients that combine populations that are at high and low risk for reintubation suggest that conditioned high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy after extubation improves oxygenation compared with conventional oxygen therapy. However, conclusive data about reintubation are lacking.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy is superior to conventional oxygen therapy for preventing reintubation in mechanically ventilated patients at low risk for reintubation.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Multicenter randomized clinical trial conducted between September 2012 and October 2014 in 7 intensive care units (ICUs) in Spain. Participants were 527 adult critical patients at low risk for reintubation who fulfilled criteria for planned extubation. Low risk for reintubation was defined as younger than 65 years; Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score less than 12 on day of extubation; body mass index less than 30; adequate secretions management; simple weaning; 0 or 1 comorbidity; and absence of heart failure, moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, airway patency problems, and prolonged mechanical ventilation.

INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomized to undergo either high-flow or conventional oxygen therapy for 24 hours after extubation.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was reintubation within 72 hours, compared with the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel χ2 test. Secondary outcomes included postextubation respiratory failure, respiratory infection, sepsis and multiorgan failure, ICU and hospital length of stay and mortality, adverse events, and time to reintubation.

RESULTS: Of 527 patients (mean age, 51 years [range, 18-64]; 62% men), 264 received high-flow therapy and 263 conventional oxygen therapy. Reintubation within 72 hours was less common in the high-flow group (13 patients [4.9%] vs 32 [12.2%] in the conventional group; absolute difference, 7.2% [95% CI, 2.5% to 12.2%]; P = .004). Postextubation respiratory failure was less common in the high-flow group (22/264 patients [8.3%] vs 38/263 [14.4%] in the conventional group; absolute difference, 6.1% [95% CI, 0.7% to 11.6%]; P = .03). Time to reintubation was not significantly different between groups (19 hours [interquartile range, 12-28] in the high-flow group vs 15 hours [interquartile range, 9-31] in the conventional group; absolute difference, -4 [95% CI, -54 to 46]; P = .66]. No adverse effects were reported.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Among extubated patients at low risk for reintubation, the use of high-flow nasal cannula oxygen compared with conventional oxygen therapy reduced the risk of reintubation within 72 hours.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01191489.

An Evaluation of Various Ventilator-Associated Infection Criteria in a PICU. (Coleman)

Beardsley AL, et al. An Evaluation of Various Ventilator-Associated Infection Criteria in a PICU. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2016 Jan;17(1):73-80.

OBJECTIVE: To describe characteristics and overlap associated with various ventilator-associated infection criteria in the PICU.

DESIGN: Retrospective observational study.

SETTING: A quaternary care children’s hospital PICU.

PATIENTS: Children ventilated more than 48 hours, excluding patients with tracheostomy.

INTERVENTIONS: None.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Ventilator-associated infection, including pneumonia, infection-related ventilator-associated condition, tracheobronchitis, and lower respiratory tract infection were defined according to criteria from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or medical literature. Clinical data were abstracted to assign diagnoses of each ventilator-associated infection. In 300 episodes of mechanical ventilation, there were 30 individual episodes of ventilator-associated infection. Nine episodes met more than one definition. Rates per 1,000 ventilator days were 2.60 for ventilator-associated pneumonia, 2.16 for infection-related ventilator-associated condition, 5.19 for ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis, and 6.92 for lower respiratory tract infection. The rate of any ventilator-associated infection was 12.98 per 1,000 ventilator days. Individual criteria had similar risk factors and outcomes. Risk factors for development of any ventilator-associated infection included older age (p = 0.003) and trauma (p = 0.007), while less cardiac surgery patients developed ventilator-associated infection (p = 0.015). On multivariate analysis, trauma was the only independent risk factor (adjusted odds ratio, 3.10; 95% CI, 1.15-8.38). Developing any ventilator-associated infection was associated with longer duration of mechanical ventilation (p < 0.001) and longer PICU length of stay (p < 0.001) but not PICU mortality (p = 0.523).

CONCLUSIONS: There is little overlap in diagnosis of various ventilator-associated infection. However, the risk factors and outcomes associated with individual criteria are similar, indicating that they may have validity in identifying true pathology. Ventilator-associated infection in general is likely a larger problem than indicated by low hospital-reported rates of ventilator-associated pneumonia. There is clinical confusion due to the presence of several diagnostic criteria for ventilator-associated infection. Developing a more inclusive and clinically relevant criterion for diagnosing ventilator-associated infection is warranted to accurately assess their impact and improve guidance for clinicians in evaluating and treating ventilator-associated infection.