Failure of Invasive Airway Placement on the First Attempt Is Associated With Progression to Cardiac Arrest in Pediatric Acute Respiratory Compromise. (Dalal)

Stinson HR, et al. Failure of Invasive Airway Placement on the First Attempt Is Associated With Progression to Cardiac Arrest in Pediatric Acute Respiratory Compromise. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018 Jan;19(1):9-16.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe the proportion of acute respiratory compromise events in hospitalized pediatric patients progressing to cardiopulmonary arrest, and the clinical factors associated with progression of acute respiratory compromise to cardiopulmonary arrest. We hypothesized that failure of invasive airway placement on the first attempt (defined as multiple attempts at tracheal intubation, and/or laryngeal mask airway placement, and/or the creation of a new tracheostomy or cricothyrotomy) is independently associated with progression of acute respiratory compromise to cardiopulmonary arrest.

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Amiodarone Versus Lidocaine for Pediatric Cardiac Arrest Due to Ventricular Arrhythmias: A Systematic Review. (Colman)

McBride ME, Marino BS, Webster G, et al. Amiodarone Versus Lidocaine for Pediatric Cardiac Arrest Due to Ventricular Arrhythmias: A Systematic Review. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2016 Dec 23.

OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review as part of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation process to create a consensus on science statement regarding amiodarone or lidocaine during pediatric cardiac arrest for the 2015 International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation’s Consensus on Science and Treatment Recommendations.

DATA SOURCES: Studies were identified from comprehensive searches in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library.

STUDY SELECTION: Studies eligible for inclusion were randomized controlled and observational studies on the relative clinical effect of amiodarone or lidocaine in cardiac arrest.

DATA EXTRACTION: Studies addressing the clinical effect of amiodarone versus lidocaine were extracted and reviewed for inclusion and exclusion criteria by the reviewers. Studies were rigorously analyzed thereafter.

DATA SYNTHESIS: We identified three articles addressing lidocaine versus amiodarone in cardiac arrest: 1) a prospective study assessing lidocaine versus amiodarone for refractory ventricular fibrillation in out-of-hospital adults; 2) an observational retrospective cohort study of inpatient pediatric patients with ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia who received lidocaine, amiodarone, neither or both; and 3) a prospective study of ventricular tachycardia with a pulse in adults. The first study showed a statistically significant improvement in survival to hospital admission with amiodarone (22.8% vs 12.0%; p = 0.009) and a lack of statistical difference for survival at discharge (p = 0.34). The second article demonstrated 44% return of spontaneous circulation for amiodarone and 64% for lidocaine (odds ratio, 2.02; 1.36-3.03) with no statistical difference for survival at hospital discharge. The third article demonstrated 48.3% arrhythmia termination for amiodarone versus 10.3% for lidocaine (p < 0.05). All were classified as lower quality studies without preference for one agent.

CONCLUSIONS: The confidence in effect estimates is so low that International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation felt that a recommendation to use of amiodarone over lidocaine is too speculative; we suggest that amiodarone or lidocaine can be used in the setting of pulseless ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation in infants and children.

Cardiac Arrests Associated With Tracheal Intubations in PICUs: A Multicenter Cohort Study. (Emrath)

Shiima Y, et al. Cardiac Arrests Associated With Tracheal Intubations in PICUs: A Multicenter Cohort Study. Crit Care Med. 2016 Apr 11. [Epub ahead of print]

OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence and epidemiologic characteristics of cardiac arrests among tracheal intubations in PICUs.

DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of prospectively collected data.

SETTING: Twenty-five diverse PICUs.

PATIENTS: Critically ill children requiring tracheal intubation in PICUs.

INTERVENTIONS: Tracheal intubation quality improvement data were prospectively collected for all initial tracheal intubations in 25 PICUs from July 2010 to March 2014 using National Emergency Airway Registry for Children registry.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Tracheal intubation-associated cardiac arrest was defined as chest compressions more than 1 minute occurring during tracheal intubation or within 20 minutes after tracheal intubation. A total of 5,232 pediatric tracheal intubations were evaluated. Tracheal intubation-associated cardiac arrest was reported in 87 (1.7%). Patient factors (demographics and indications for tracheal intubation), provider factors (discipline and training level), and practice factors (tracheal intubation method and use of neuromuscular blockade) were recorded. Hemodynamic instability and oxygenation failure as tracheal intubation indications were associated with cardiac arrests (adjusted odds ratio, 6.3; 95% CI, 3.9-10.3; and adjusted odds ratio, 4.3; 95% CI, 2.6-6.9, respectively). History of difficult airway and cardiac disease were also associated with cardiac arrests (adjusted odds ratio, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.2-3.5; and adjusted odds ratio, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.2-3.9, respectively). Provider and practice factors were not associated with cardiac arrests, and provider factors did not modify the effect of patient factors on cardiac arrests.

CONCLUSIONS: Tracheal intubation-associated cardiac arrests occurred during 1.7% of PICU tracheal intubations. Tracheal intubation-associated cardiac arrests were much more common with tracheal intubations when the child had acute hemodynamic instability or oxygen failure and when the child had a history of difficult airway or cardiac disease.

Cerebral Oximetry During Cardiac Arrest: A Multicenter Study of Neurologic Outcomes and Survival. (Emrath)

Parnia S, et al. Cerebral Oximetry During Cardiac Arrest: A Multicenter Study of Neurologic Outcomes and Survival. Crit Care Med. 2016 Apr 11. [Epub ahead of print]

OBJECTIVES: Cardiac arrest is associated with morbidity and mortality because of cerebral ischemia. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that higher regional cerebral oxygenation during resuscitation is associated with improved return of spontaneous circulation, survival, and neurologic outcomes at hospital discharge. We further examined the validity of regional cerebral oxygenation as a test to predict these outcomes.

DESIGN: Multicenter prospective study of in-hospital cardiac arrest.

SETTING: Five medical centers in the United States and the United Kingdom.

PATIENTS: Inclusion criteria are as follows: in-hospital cardiac arrest, age 18 years old or older, and prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation greater than or equal to 5 minutes. Patients were recruited consecutively during working hours between August 2011 and September 2014. Survival with a favorable neurologic outcome was defined as a cerebral performance category 1-2.

INTERVENTIONS: Cerebral oximetry monitoring.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Among 504 in-hospital cardiac arrest events, 183 (36%) met inclusion criteria. Overall, 62 of 183 (33.9%) achieved return of spontaneous circulation, whereas 13 of 183 (7.1%) achieved cerebral performance category 1-2 at discharge. Higher mean ± SD regional cerebral oxygenation was associated with return of spontaneous circulation versus no return of spontaneous circulation (51.8% ± 11.2% vs 40.9% ± 12.3%) and cerebral performance category 1-2 versus cerebral performance category 3-5 (56.1% ± 10.0% vs 43.8% ± 12.8%) (both p < 0.001). Mean regional cerebral oxygenation during the last 5 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation best predicted the return of spontaneous circulation (area under the curve, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.69-0.83); regional cerebral oxygenation greater than or equal to 25% provided 100% sensitivity (95% CI, 94-100) and 100% negative predictive value (95% CI, 79-100); regional cerebral oxygenation greater than or equal to 65% provided 99% specificity (95% CI, 95-100) and 93% positive predictive value (95% CI, 66-100) for return of spontaneous circulation. Time with regional cerebral oxygenation greater than 50% during cardiopulmonary resuscitation best predicted cerebral performance category 1-2 (area under the curve, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.70-0.88). Specifically, greater than or equal to 60% cardiopulmonary resuscitation time with regional cerebral oxygenation greater than 50% provided 77% sensitivity (95% CI,:46-95), 72% specificity (95% CI, 65-79), and 98% negative predictive value (95% CI, 93-100) for cerebral performance category 1-2.

CONCLUSIONS: Cerebral oximetry allows real-time, noninvasive cerebral oxygenation monitoring during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Higher cerebral oxygenation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation is associated with return of spontaneous circulation and neurologically favorable survival to hospital discharge. Achieving higher regional cerebral oxygenation during resuscitation may optimize the chances of cardiac arrest favorable outcomes.

Association of presence and timing of invasive airway placement with outcomes after pediatric in-hospital cardiac arrest. (Emrath)

Gupta P, Rettiganti M, Gossett JM, et al. Association of presence and timing of invasive airway placement with outcomes after pediatric in-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation. 2015 Jul;92:53-8.

Full-text for Emory users.

BACKGROUND: Little data exist regarding the association of presence of an invasive airway before cardiac arrest or early placement of an invasive airway after cardiac arrest with outcomes in children who experience in-hospital cardiac arrest.

METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of patients aged 1 day to 18 years who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for ≥ 1 min in any of the three intensive care units (ICUs) at a tertiary care, academic children’s hospital between 2002 and 2010. Specific outcomes evaluated included survival to hospital discharge, return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), 24-h survival, and good neurological status at hospital discharge. We fitted multivariable logistic regression models to evaluate the association between the presence of an invasive airway prior to cardiac arrest and timing of placement of an invasive airway with these outcomes.

RESULTS: Three hundred and ninety-one patients were included. Of these, 197 (51%) patients were already tracheally intubated before the occurrence of cardiac arrest. Median time to intubation was 6 min [interquartile range (IQR): 2, 12] among the 194 patients tracheally intubated following cardiac arrest. We found lower survival to hospital discharge among patients intubated prior to cardiac arrest (intubated vs. non-intubated group, 43% vs. 61%, p < 0.001). After adjusting for patient and event characteristics, presence of an invasive airway prior to cardiac arrest was not associated with a significant improvement in survival to hospital discharge [odds ratio (OR): 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42-1.16, p = 0.17], or good neurological outcomes (OR: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.34-1.05, p = 0.07). Similarly, early placement of an invasive airway after cardiac arrest was also not associated with an improvement in survival to hospital discharge (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 0.78-1.42, p = 0.73), or good neurological outcomes (OR: 1.08, 95% CI: 0.77-1.53, p = 0.65).

CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that presence of an invasive airway prior to cardiac arrest or early placement of an invasive airway after cardiac arrest is not associated with an improvement in survival to hospital discharge or good neurological outcomes. Further study of the relationship between invasive airway management and survival following cardiac arrest is warranted.