Racial and Ethnic Variation in Pediatric Cardiac Extracorporeal Life Support Survival. (Carroll)

Chan T, et al. Racial and Ethnic Variation in Pediatric Cardiac Extracorporeal Life Support Survival. Crit Care Med. 2017 Apr; 45(4):670-678.

OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have suggested an association between nonwhite race and poor outcomes in small subsets of cardiac surgery patients who require extracorporeal life support. This study aims to examine the association of race/ethnicity with mortality in pediatric patients who receive extracorporeal life support for cardiac support.

DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of registry data.

SETTING: Prospectively collected multi-institutional registry data.

SUBJECTS: Data from all North American pediatric patients in the Extracorporeal Life Support International Registry who received extracorporeal life support for cardiac support between 1998 and 2012 were analyzed. Multivariate regression models were constructed to examine the association between race/ethnicity and hospital mortality, adjusting for demographics, diagnosis, pre-extracorporeal life support care, extracorporeal life support variables, and extracorporeal life support-related complications.

INTERVENTIONS: None.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of 7,106 patients undergoing cardiac extracorporeal life support, the majority of patients were of white race (56.9%) with black race (16.7%), Hispanic ethnicity (15.8%), and Asian race (2.8%) comprising the other major race/ethnic groups. The mortality rate was 53.9% (n = 3,831). After adjusting for covariates, multivariate analysis identified black race (relative risk = 1.10; 95% CI, 1.04-1.16) and Hispanic ethnicity (relative risk = 1.08; 95% CI, 1.02-1.14) as independent risk factors for mortality.

CONCLUSIONS: Black race and Hispanic ethnicity are independently associated with mortality in children who require cardiac extracorporeal life support.

Long-Term Survival and Causes of Late Death in Children Treated With Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation. (Colman)

von Bahr V, Hultman J, Eksborg S, et al. Long-Term Survival and Causes of Late Death in Children Treated With Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2017 Jan 10.

OBJECTIVE: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has been used in patients with severe circulatory or respiratory failure since the 1970s, but the knowledge on long-term survival in this group is scarce. The aim of the present study was to investigate the 10-year survival rates and causes of late death in children treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

DESIGN: Single-center, retrospective cohort study.

SETTING: Tertiary referral center for extracorporeal life support.

PATIENTS: Neonatal and pediatric patients treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation from 1987 to December 2013.

INTERVENTIONS: None.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Survival status was obtained from the national Causes of Death registry. Patient background data along with data on survival and causes of death were collected. Survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Of 400 subjects, 76% survived to discharge. The median follow-up time in survivors was 7.2 years. There was a high mortality rate within the first months after discharge. In the group of patients who survived the first 90 days after treatment, the 10-year survival rates were 93% in neonates and 89% in pediatric patients and were particularly beneficial in patients whose indication for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was meconium aspiration syndrome, trauma, or infectious diseases. Late deaths were seen in some diagnostic groups, but the Kaplan-Meier curves plateaued over time.

CONCLUSIONS: Children who survive the first months after treatment with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation have a high long-term survival rate. The prognosis is especially favorable in patients with reversible conditions.

Development and Validation of a Score to Predict Mortality in Children Undergoing Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Respiratory Failure: Pediatric Pulmonary Rescue With Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Prediction Score. (Betters)

Bailly DK, et al. Development and Validation of a Score to Predict Mortality in Children Undergoing Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Respiratory Failure: Pediatric Pulmonary Rescue With Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Prediction Score. Crit Care Med. 2017 Jan;45(1):e58-e66.

OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to develop and validate a prognostic score for predicting mortality at the time of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation initiation for children with respiratory failure. Preextracorporeal membrane oxygenation mortality prediction is important for determining center-specific risk-adjusted outcomes and counseling families.

DESIGN: Multivariable logistic regression of a large international cohort of pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients.

SETTING: Multi-institutional data.

PATIENTS: Prognostic score development: A total of 4,352 children more than 7 days to less than 18 years old, with an initial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation run for respiratory failure reported to the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization’s data registry during 2001-2013 were used for derivation (70%) and validation (30%). Bidirectional stepwise logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with mortality. Retained variables were assigned a score based on the odds of mortality with higher scores indicating greater mortality. External validation was accomplished using 2,007 patients from the Pediatric Health Information System dataset.

INTERVENTIONS: None.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The Pediatric Pulmonary Rescue with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Prediction score included mode of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; preextracorporeal membrane oxygenation mechanical ventilation more than 14 days; preextracorporeal membrane oxygenation severity of hypoxia; primary pulmonary diagnostic categories including, asthma, aspiration, respiratory syncytial virus, sepsis-induced respiratory failure, pertussis, and “other”; and preextracorporeal membrane oxygenation comorbid conditions of cardiac arrest, cancer, renal and liver dysfunction. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for internal and external validation datasets were 0.69 (95% CI, 0.67-0.71) and 0.66 (95% CI, 0.63-0.69).

CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric Pulmonary Rescue with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Prediction is a validated tool for predicting in-hospital mortality among children with respiratory failure receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support.

Prognostic Impact of Persistent Thrombocytopenia During Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: A Retrospective Analysis of Prospectively Collected Data From a Cohort of Patients With Left Ventricular Dysfunction After Cardiac Surgery. (Stulce)

Opfermann P, et al. Prognostic Impact of Persistent Thrombocytopenia During Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: A Retrospective Analysis of Prospectively Collected Data From a Cohort of Patients With Left Ventricular Dysfunction After Cardiac Surgery. Crit Care Med. 2016 Dec;44(12):e1208-e1218.

OBJECTIVE: The prognostic impact of thrombocytopenia in patients supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation after cardiac surgery is uncertain. We investigated whether thrombocytopenia is independently predictive of poor outcome and describe the incidence and time course of thrombocytopenia in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients.

DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data.

SETTING: Cardiosurgical ICU at a tertiary referral center.

PATIENTS: Three hundred adult patients supported with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for more than 24 hours because of refractory cardiogenic shock after heart surgery between January 2001 and December 2014.

INTERVENTIONS: None.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Two-way analysis of variance was used to compare the time course of platelet count changes between survivors and nonsurvivors. Using multiple Cox regression with time-dependent covariates, we investigated the impact of platelet count on 90-day mortality. In nonsurvivors, the daily incidence of moderate (< 100 – 50 × 10/L), severe (49 – 20 × 10/L), and very severe (< 20 × 10/L) thrombocytopenia was 50%, 54%, and 7%, respectively. Platelet count had a biphasic temporal pattern with an initial decrease until day 4-5 after the initiation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Although a significant recovery of the platelet count was observed in survivors, a recovery did not occur in nonsurvivors (p = 0.0001). After adjusting for suspected confounders, moderate, severe, and very severe thrombocytopenia were independently associated with 90-day mortality. The highest risk was associated with severe (hazard ratio, 5.9 [2.7-12.6]; p < 0.0001) and very severe thrombocytopenia (hazard ratio, 25.9 [10.7-62.9], p < 0.0001).

CONCLUSION: Thrombocytopenia is an independent risk factor for poor outcome in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients after cardiac surgery, with persistent severe thrombocytopenia likely reflecting a high degree of physiologic imbalance.

Factors Associated With Mortality in Neonates Requiring Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Cardiac Indications: Analysis of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry Data. (Duke)

Ford MA, et al. Factors Associated With Mortality in Neonates Requiring Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Cardiac Indications: Analysis of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry Data. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2016 Sep;17(9):860-70.

OBJECTIVES: Survival among neonates supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for cardiac indications is 39%. Previous single-center studies have identified factors associated with mortality, but a comprehensive multivariate analysis is not available for this population. Understanding factors associated with mortality may help design treatment strategies, determine optimal timing for cannulation, and inform patient selection. This study identifies factors associated with mortality in neonates supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for cardiac indications.

DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study.

SETTING: Two hundred and thirty U.S. and international centers reporting extracorporeal membrane oxygenation data to the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization.

SUBJECTS: Four thousand and four seventy one neonates with congenital and acquired cardiac disease supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for cardiac indications during 2001-2011.

INTERVENTIONS: None.

MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: The primary outcome measure was mortality prior to hospital discharge. Overall hospital mortality was 59%. Demographic and preextracorporeal membrane oxygenation factors associated with mortality were evaluated in a multivariable model. Factors associated with death prior to hospital discharge included lower body weight, earlier era, single ventricle physiology, lower preextracorporeal membrane oxygenation arterial pH, and longer time from intubation to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cannulation. Lower pH was associated with increased mortality regardless of cardiac diagnosis and surgical complexity. The majority of survivors separated from extracorporeal membrane oxygenation less than 8 days after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation deployment.

CONCLUSIONS: Mortality for neonates supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for cardiac indications is high. Severity of preextracorporeal membrane oxygenation acidosis was independently associated with increased risk of mortality. Earlier initiation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation may reduce the degree and duration of acidosis and may improve survival. Further studies are needed to determine optimal timing of cannulation in this population.

Association of Hospital Structure and Complications With Mortality After Pediatric Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation. (Williams)

Nasr VG, Faraoni D, DiNardo JA, Thiagarajan RR. Association of Hospital Structure and Complications With Mortality After Pediatric Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2016 Jul;17(7):684-91.

OBJECTIVES: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is increasingly utilized to provide cardiopulmonary support to critically ill children. Although life-saving in many instances, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. This study evaluates the effect of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation complications and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation hospital characteristics on mortality in neonates and children supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of administrative data.

SETTING: Data from 31 U.S. states included in 2012 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Kids’ Inpatient Database.

PATIENTS: Children treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

INTERVENTIONS: None.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Study subject were identified using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Edition Clinical Modification code 39.65 and classified into six diagnostic categories: 1) cardiac surgery, 2) non-surgical heart disease, 3) congenital diaphragmatic hernia, 4) neonatal respiratory failure, 5) pediatric respiratory failure, and 6) sepsis. Demographics, hospital characteristics, and outcome information were used in a multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine factors associated with mortality. We identified 1,465 children treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Overall mortality was 40% (591/1,465). Mortality was independently associated with diagnosis (heart disease: odds ratio, 1.7; p = 0.01; congenital diaphragmatic hernia: odds ratio, 5.1; p < 0.001; and sepsis odds ratio: 2.4; p = 0.003 compared with neonatal respiratory failure) time from hospital admission to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation of more than 10 days (odds ratio, 4.5; p < 0.001) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation complications (renal [odds ratio: 5; p < 0.001] and neurologic [odds ratio, 1.4; p = 0.03] injury). In addition, hospitals with bed size less than 400 had higher mortality (odds ratio, 1.4; p = 0.02). In patients with any extracorporeal membrane oxygenation complication, probability of mortality was lower for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients in larger hospitals, 38% (95% CI, 37-39) versus 44% (95% CI, 43-46) with p value of less than 0.001.

CONCLUSIONS: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation mortality was significantly associated with patient diagnosis, time to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation initiation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation complications, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation hospital bed size. Improved survival in larger hospitals supports centralization of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation services to larger centers.