Lung Rest During Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Neonatal Respiratory Failure-Practice Variations and Outcomes. (Duke)

Alapati D, et al. Lung Rest During Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Neonatal Respiratory Failure-Practice Variations and Outcomes. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2017 Jul;18(7):667-674.

OBJECTIVE: Describe practice variations in ventilator strategies used for lung rest during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for respiratory failure in neonates, and assess the potential impact of various lung rest strategies on the duration of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and the duration of mechanical ventilation after decannulation.

DATA SOURCES: Retrospective cohort analysis from the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization registry database during the years 2008-2013.

STUDY SELECTION: All extracorporeal membrane oxygenation runs for infants less than or equal to 30 days of life for pulmonary reasons were included.

DATA EXTRACTION: Ventilator type and ventilator settings used for lung rest at 24 hours after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation initiation were obtained.

DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 3,040 cases met inclusion criteria. Conventional mechanical ventilation was used for lung rest in 88% of cases and high frequency ventilation was used in 12%. In the conventional mechanical ventilation group, 32% used positive end-expiratory pressure strategy of 4-6 cm H2O (low), 22% used 7-9 cm H2O (mid), and 43% used 10-12 cm H2O (high). High frequency ventilation was associated with an increased mean (SEM) hours of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (150.2 [0.05] vs 125 [0.02]; p < 0.001) and an increased mean (SEM) hours of mechanical ventilation after decannulation (135 [0.09] vs 100.2 [0.03]; p = 0.002), compared with conventional mechanical ventilation among survivors. Within the conventional mechanical ventilation group, use of higher positive end-expiratory pressure was associated with a decreased mean (SEM) hours of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (high vs low: 136 [1.06] vs 156 [1.06], p = 0.001; mid vs low: 141 [1.06] vs 156 [1.06]; p = 0.04) but increased duration of mechanical ventilation after decannulation in the high positive end-expiratory pressure group compared with low positive end-expiratory pressure (p = 0.04) among survivors.

CONCLUSIONS: Wide practice variation exists with regard to ventilator settings used for lung rest during neonatal respiratory extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Use of high frequency ventilation when compared with conventional mechanical ventilation and use of low positive end-expiratory pressure strategy when compared with mid positive end-expiratory pressure and high positive end-expiratory pressure strategy is associated with longer duration of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Further research to provide evidence to drive optimization of pulmonary management during neonatal respiratory extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is warranted.

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The Utility of High-Fidelity Simulation for Training Critical Care Fellows in the Management of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Emergencies: A Randomized Controlled Trial. (Sirignano)

Zakhary BM, et al. The Utility of High-Fidelity Simulation for Training Critical Care Fellows in the Management of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Emergencies: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Crit Care Med. 2017 Aug;45(8):1367-1373.

OBJECTIVE: Although extracorporeal membrane oxygenation volume has increased, proficiency in the technology requires extensive training. We compared traditional water-drill-based extracorporeal membrane oxygenation training with simulation-based extracorporeal membrane oxygenation training with the hypothesis that simulation-based training is superior.

DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial.

SETTING: Academic medical center.

SUBJECTS: Pulmonary/critical care fellows.

INTERVENTIONS: Participants had a preintervention simulated extracorporeal membrane oxygenation emergency (Sim1-recirculation) then randomized into simulation and traditional groups. Each group participated in three teaching scenarios, via high-fidelity simulation or via water-drills. After 6 weeks and after 1 year, participants returned for two simulated extracorporeal membrane oxygenation emergencies (Sim2-pump failure and Sim3-access insufficiency). Sim2 was a case encountered during teaching, whereas Sim3 was novel. A critical action, necessary for resolution of each scenario, was preidentified for timing.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Primary outcome was time required to perform critical actions. Twenty-one fellows participated in the study (simulation, 10; traditional, 11). Groups had similar scenario scores (p = 0.4) and times to critical action (p = 0.8) on Sim1. At 6 weeks, both groups had similar scenario scores on Sim2 (p = 0.5), but the simulation group scored higher on Sim3 (p = 0.03). Times to critical actions were shorter in the simulation group during Sim2 (127 vs 174 s, p = 0.004) and Sim3 (159 vs 300 s; p = 0.04). These findings persisted at 1 year.

CONCLUSIONS: In novice critical care fellows, simulation-based extracorporeal membrane oxygenation training is superior to traditional training. Benefits transfer to novel scenarios and are maintained over the long term. Further studies evaluating the utility of simulation in other learner groups and for maintenance of proficiency are required.

Racial and Ethnic Variation in Pediatric Cardiac Extracorporeal Life Support Survival. (Carroll)

Chan T, et al. Racial and Ethnic Variation in Pediatric Cardiac Extracorporeal Life Support Survival. Crit Care Med. 2017 Apr; 45(4):670-678.

OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have suggested an association between nonwhite race and poor outcomes in small subsets of cardiac surgery patients who require extracorporeal life support. This study aims to examine the association of race/ethnicity with mortality in pediatric patients who receive extracorporeal life support for cardiac support.

DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of registry data.

SETTING: Prospectively collected multi-institutional registry data.

SUBJECTS: Data from all North American pediatric patients in the Extracorporeal Life Support International Registry who received extracorporeal life support for cardiac support between 1998 and 2012 were analyzed. Multivariate regression models were constructed to examine the association between race/ethnicity and hospital mortality, adjusting for demographics, diagnosis, pre-extracorporeal life support care, extracorporeal life support variables, and extracorporeal life support-related complications.

INTERVENTIONS: None.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of 7,106 patients undergoing cardiac extracorporeal life support, the majority of patients were of white race (56.9%) with black race (16.7%), Hispanic ethnicity (15.8%), and Asian race (2.8%) comprising the other major race/ethnic groups. The mortality rate was 53.9% (n = 3,831). After adjusting for covariates, multivariate analysis identified black race (relative risk = 1.10; 95% CI, 1.04-1.16) and Hispanic ethnicity (relative risk = 1.08; 95% CI, 1.02-1.14) as independent risk factors for mortality.

CONCLUSIONS: Black race and Hispanic ethnicity are independently associated with mortality in children who require cardiac extracorporeal life support.

Long-Term Survival and Causes of Late Death in Children Treated With Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation. (Colman)

von Bahr V, Hultman J, Eksborg S, et al. Long-Term Survival and Causes of Late Death in Children Treated With Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2017 Jan 10.

OBJECTIVE: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has been used in patients with severe circulatory or respiratory failure since the 1970s, but the knowledge on long-term survival in this group is scarce. The aim of the present study was to investigate the 10-year survival rates and causes of late death in children treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

DESIGN: Single-center, retrospective cohort study.

SETTING: Tertiary referral center for extracorporeal life support.

PATIENTS: Neonatal and pediatric patients treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation from 1987 to December 2013.

INTERVENTIONS: None.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Survival status was obtained from the national Causes of Death registry. Patient background data along with data on survival and causes of death were collected. Survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Of 400 subjects, 76% survived to discharge. The median follow-up time in survivors was 7.2 years. There was a high mortality rate within the first months after discharge. In the group of patients who survived the first 90 days after treatment, the 10-year survival rates were 93% in neonates and 89% in pediatric patients and were particularly beneficial in patients whose indication for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was meconium aspiration syndrome, trauma, or infectious diseases. Late deaths were seen in some diagnostic groups, but the Kaplan-Meier curves plateaued over time.

CONCLUSIONS: Children who survive the first months after treatment with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation have a high long-term survival rate. The prognosis is especially favorable in patients with reversible conditions.