Dexmedetomidine for Sedation During Noninvasive Ventilation in Pediatric Patients. (Dodd)

Venkatraman R, et al. Dexmedetomidine for Sedation During Noninvasive Ventilation in Pediatric Patients. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2017 Sep;18(9):831-837.

OBJECTIVES: To describe the use of dexmedetomidine for sedation in a large cohort of nonintubated children with acute respiratory insufficiency receiving noninvasive ventilatory support.

DESIGN: Single-center, retrospective, observational cohort study.

SETTING: A large quaternary-care PICU.

PATIENTS: The study cohort included 202 children receiving noninvasive ventilatory and a dexmedetomidine infusion within 48 hours of PICU admission over a 6-month period.

INTERVENTIONS: None.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary respiratory diagnoses in the cohort (median age, 2 yr) included status asthmaticus (60%) and bronchiolitis (29%). Dexmedetomidine was infused for a median of 35 hours with a median hourly dose across the patient cohort of 0.61 μg/kg/hr (range, 0.4-0.8 μg/kg/hr). The target sedation level was achieved in 168 patients (83%) in the cohort for greater than or equal to 80% of the recorded values over the entire noninvasive ventilatory course, with dexmedetomidine as the only continuously administered sedative agent. While vital signs were frequently abnormal relative to age-based norms, clinical interventions were needed rarely to treat bradycardia (13%), hypotension (20%), and hypopnea (5%). The most frequently used of these interventions was a dexmedetomidine dose reduction, fluid bolus, and titration of noninvasive ventilatory support. Five patients (2.5%) required endotracheal intubation: three due to progression of their respiratory illness, one with septic shock, and one with apnea requiring resuscitation. In 194 of 202 patients (96%), the outcome of the noninvasive ventilatory course was successful with the patient being weaned from noninvasive respiratory support to nasal cannula or room air.

CONCLUSIONS: Dexmedetomidine was often effective as a single continuous sedative infusion during pediatric noninvasive ventilatory. Cardiorespiratory events associated with its use were typically mild and/or reversible with dose reduction, fluid administration, and/or noninvasive ventilatory titration. Prospective studies comparing dexmedetomidine with other agents in this setting are warranted.

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Dexmedetomidine Use in Critically Ill Children With Acute Respiratory Failure. (Dodd)

Grant MJ, et al. Dexmedetomidine Use in Critically Ill Children With Acute Respiratory Failure. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2016 Dec; 17(12): 1131-1141.

OBJECTIVE: Care of critically ill children includes sedation but current therapies are suboptimal. To describe dexmedetomidine use in children supported on mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure.

DESIGN: Secondary analysis of data from the Randomized Evaluation of Sedation Titration for Respiratory Failure clinical trial.

SETTING: Thirty-one PICUs.

PATIENTS: Data from 2,449 children; 2 weeks to 17 years old.

INTERVENTIONS: Sedation practices were unrestrained in the usual care arm. Patients were categorized as receiving dexmedetomidine as a primary sedative, secondary sedative, periextubation agent, or never prescribed. Dexmedetomidine exposure and sedation and clinical profiles are described.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of 1,224 usual care patients, 596 (49%) received dexmedetomidine. Dexmedetomidine as a primary sedative patients (n = 138; 11%) were less critically ill (Pediatric Risk of Mortality III-12 score median, 6 [interquartile range, 3-11]) and when compared with all other cohorts, experienced more episodic agitation. In the intervention group, time in sedation target improved from 28% to 50% within 1 day of initiating dexmedetomidine as a primary sedative. Dexmedetomidine as a secondary sedative usual care patients (n = 280; 23%) included more children with severe pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome or organ failure. Dexmedetomidine as a secondary sedative patients experienced more inadequate pain (22% vs 11%) and sedation (31% vs 16%) events. Dexmedetomidine as a periextubation agent patients (n = 178; 15%) were those known to not tolerate an awake, intubated state and experienced a shorter ventilator weaning process (2.1 vs 2.3 d).

CONCLUSIONS: Our data support the use of dexmedetomidine as a primary agent in low criticality patients offering the benefit of rapid achievement of targeted sedation levels. Dexmedetomidine as a secondary agent does not appear to add benefit. The use of dexmedetomidine to facilitate extubation in children intolerant of an awake, intubated state may abbreviate ventilator weaning. These data support a broader armamentarium of pediatric critical care sedation.

Dexmedetomidine Use in Critically Ill Children With Acute Respiratory Failure. (Emrath)

Grant MJ, et al. Dexmedetomidine Use in Critically Ill Children With Acute Respiratory Failure. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2016 Sep 20. [Epub ahead of print]

OBJECTIVE: Care of critically ill children includes sedation but current therapies are suboptimal. To describe dexmedetomidine use in children supported on mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure.

DESIGN: Secondary analysis of data from the Randomized Evaluation of Sedation Titration for Respiratory Failure clinical trial.

SETTING: Thirty-one PICUs.

PATIENTS: Data from 2,449 children; 2 weeks to 17 years old.

INTERVENTIONS: Sedation practices were unrestrained in the usual care arm. Patients were categorized as receiving dexmedetomidine as a primary sedative, secondary sedative, periextubation agent, or never prescribed. Dexmedetomidine exposure and sedation and clinical profiles are described.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of 1,224 usual care patients, 596 (49%) received dexmedetomidine. Dexmedetomidine as a primary sedative patients (n = 138; 11%) were less critically ill (Pediatric Risk of Mortality III-12 score median, 6 [interquartile range, 3-11]) and when compared with all other cohorts, experienced more episodic agitation. In the intervention group, time in sedation target improved from 28% to 50% within 1 day of initiating dexmedetomidine as a primary sedative. Dexmedetomidine as a secondary sedative usual care patients (n = 280; 23%) included more children with severe pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome or organ failure. Dexmedetomidine as a secondary sedative patients experienced more inadequate pain (22% vs 11%) and sedation (31% vs 16%) events. Dexmedetomidine as a periextubation agent patients (n = 178; 15%) were those known to not tolerate an awake, intubated state and experienced a shorter ventilator weaning process (2.1 vs 2.3 d).

CONCLUSIONS: Our data support the use of dexmedetomidine as a primary agent in low criticality patients offering the benefit of rapid achievement of targeted sedation levels. Dexmedetomidine as a secondary agent does not appear to add benefit. The use of dexmedetomidine to facilitate extubation in children intolerant of an awake, intubated state may abbreviate ventilator weaning. These data support a broader armamentarium of pediatric critical care sedation.

Dexmedetomidine Is Associated With Lower Incidence of Acute Kidney Injury After Congenital Heart Surgery. (Patel)

Kwiatkowski DM, et al. Dexmedetomidine Is Associated With Lower Incidence of Acute Kidney Injury After Congenital Heart Surgery. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2016 Feb;17(2):128-34.

OBJECTIVES: Recent data have suggested an association between the use of dexmedetomidine and a decreased incidence of acute kidney injury in adult patients after cardiopulmonary bypass. However, no study has focused on this association among pediatric populations where the incidence of acute kidney injury is particularly high and of critical significance. The primary objective of this study was to assess the relationship between the use of postoperative dexmedetomidine and the incidence of acute kidney injury in pediatric patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. The secondary objective was to determine whether there was an association between dexmedetomidine use and duration of mechanical ventilation or cardiovascular ICU stay.

DESIGN: Single-center retrospective matched cohort study.

SETTING: A 20-bed quaternary cardiovascular ICU in a university-based pediatric hospital in California.

PATIENTS: Children less than 18 years old admitted after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass between January 1, 2012, and May 31, 2014.

INTERVENTIONS: None.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Data from a cohort of 102 patients receiving dexmedetomidine during the first postoperative day after cardiac surgery were compared to an age- and procedure-matched cohort not receiving dexmedetomidine. Cohorts had similar baseline and demographic characteristics. Patients receiving dexmedetomidine were less likely to develop acute kidney injury (24% vs 36%; odds ratio, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.29-0.99; p = 0.046). After adjusting for age, bypass time, nephrotoxin use, and vasoactive inotropic score, the use of dexmedetomidine was associated with a lower incidence of acute kidney injury with adjusted odds ratio of 0.43 (95% CI, 0.27-0.98; p = 0.048). There was no difference between the cohorts with respect to the duration of mechanical duration (1 d each; p = 0.98) or cardiovascular ICU stays (5 vs 6 d; p = 0.91).

CONCLUSIONS: The use of a dexmedetomidine infusion in pediatric patients after congenital heart surgery was associated with a decreased incidence of acute kidney injury; however, it was not associated with changes in clinical outcomes. Further prospective study is necessary to validate these findings.