A mobile device application to reduce medication errors and time to drug delivery during simulated paediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a multicentre, randomised, controlled, crossover trial. (Land)

Siebert JN, et al. A mobile device application to reduce medication errors and time to drug delivery during simulated paediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a multicentre, randomised, controlled, crossover trial. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2019 May;3(5):303-311.

BACKGROUND: Vasoactive drug preparation for continuous infusion in children is both complex and time consuming and places the paediatric population at higher risk than adults for medication errors. We developed a mobile device application (app) as a step-by-step guide for the preparation to delivery of drugs requiring continuous infusion. The app has been previously tested during simulation-based resuscitations in a previous single-centre trial. In this trial, our aim was to assess this app in various hospital settings.

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Functional Status Change Among Children With Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation to Support Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in a Pediatric Cardiac ICU: A Single Institution Report. (Freeman)

Beshish AG, et al. Functional Status Change Among Children With Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation to Support Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in a Pediatric Cardiac ICU: A Single Institution Report. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018 Jul;19(7): 665-671.

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to describe the functional status of survivors from extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation instituted during in-hospital cardiac arrest using the Functional Status Scale. We aimed to determine risk factors leading to the development of new morbidity and unfavorable functional outcomes.

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End-Tidal CO2-Guided Chest Compression Delivery Improves Survival in a Neonatal Asphyxial Cardiac Arrest Model. (Coleman)

Hamrick JT, Hamrick JL, Bhalala U, Armstrong JS, Lee JH, Kulikowicz E, Lee JK, Kudchadkar SR, Koehler RC, Hunt EA, Shaffner DH. End-Tidal CO2-Guided Chest Compression Delivery Improves Survival in a Neonatal Asphyxial Cardiac Arrest Model. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2017 Aug 16.

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether end-tidal CO2-guided chest compression delivery improves survival over standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation after prolonged asphyxial arrest.

DESIGN: Preclinical randomized controlled study.

SETTING: University animal research laboratory.

SUBJECTS: 1-2-week-old swine.

INTERVENTIONS: After undergoing a 20-minute asphyxial arrest, animals received either standard or end-tidal CO2-guided cardiopulmonary resuscitation. In the standard group, chest compression delivery was optimized by video and verbal feedback to maintain the rate, depth, and release within published guidelines. In the end-tidal CO2-guided group, chest compression rate and depth were adjusted to obtain a maximal end-tidal CO2 level without other feedback. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation included 10 minutes of basic life support followed by advanced life support for 10 minutes or until return of spontaneous circulation.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Mean end-tidal CO2 at 10 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation was 34 ± 8 torr in the end-tidal CO2 group (n = 14) and 19 ± 9 torr in the standard group (n = 14; p = 0.0001). The return of spontaneous circulation rate was 7 of 14 (50%) in the end-tidal CO2 group and 2 of 14 (14%) in the standard group (p = 0.04). The chest compression rate averaged 143 ± 10/min in the end-tidal CO2 group and 102 ± 2/min in the standard group (p < 0.0001). Neither asphyxia-related hypercarbia nor epinephrine administration confounded the use of end-tidal CO2-guided chest compression delivery. The response of the relaxation arterial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure to the initial epinephrine administration was greater in the end-tidal CO2 group than in the standard group (p = 0.01 and p = 0.03, respectively). The prevalence of resuscitation-related injuries was similar between groups.

CONCLUSIONS: End-tidal CO2-guided chest compression delivery is an effective resuscitation method that improves early survival after prolonged asphyxial arrest in this neonatal piglet model. Optimizing end-tidal CO2 levels during cardiopulmonary resuscitation required that chest compression delivery rate exceed current guidelines. The use of physiologic feedback during cardiopulmonary resuscitation has the potential to provide optimized and individualized resuscitative efforts.

Cerebral Oximetry During Cardiac Arrest: A Multicenter Study of Neurologic Outcomes and Survival. (Emrath)

Parnia S, et al. Cerebral Oximetry During Cardiac Arrest: A Multicenter Study of Neurologic Outcomes and Survival. Crit Care Med. 2016 Apr 11. [Epub ahead of print]

OBJECTIVES: Cardiac arrest is associated with morbidity and mortality because of cerebral ischemia. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that higher regional cerebral oxygenation during resuscitation is associated with improved return of spontaneous circulation, survival, and neurologic outcomes at hospital discharge. We further examined the validity of regional cerebral oxygenation as a test to predict these outcomes.

DESIGN: Multicenter prospective study of in-hospital cardiac arrest.

SETTING: Five medical centers in the United States and the United Kingdom.

PATIENTS: Inclusion criteria are as follows: in-hospital cardiac arrest, age 18 years old or older, and prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation greater than or equal to 5 minutes. Patients were recruited consecutively during working hours between August 2011 and September 2014. Survival with a favorable neurologic outcome was defined as a cerebral performance category 1-2.

INTERVENTIONS: Cerebral oximetry monitoring.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Among 504 in-hospital cardiac arrest events, 183 (36%) met inclusion criteria. Overall, 62 of 183 (33.9%) achieved return of spontaneous circulation, whereas 13 of 183 (7.1%) achieved cerebral performance category 1-2 at discharge. Higher mean ± SD regional cerebral oxygenation was associated with return of spontaneous circulation versus no return of spontaneous circulation (51.8% ± 11.2% vs 40.9% ± 12.3%) and cerebral performance category 1-2 versus cerebral performance category 3-5 (56.1% ± 10.0% vs 43.8% ± 12.8%) (both p < 0.001). Mean regional cerebral oxygenation during the last 5 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation best predicted the return of spontaneous circulation (area under the curve, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.69-0.83); regional cerebral oxygenation greater than or equal to 25% provided 100% sensitivity (95% CI, 94-100) and 100% negative predictive value (95% CI, 79-100); regional cerebral oxygenation greater than or equal to 65% provided 99% specificity (95% CI, 95-100) and 93% positive predictive value (95% CI, 66-100) for return of spontaneous circulation. Time with regional cerebral oxygenation greater than 50% during cardiopulmonary resuscitation best predicted cerebral performance category 1-2 (area under the curve, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.70-0.88). Specifically, greater than or equal to 60% cardiopulmonary resuscitation time with regional cerebral oxygenation greater than 50% provided 77% sensitivity (95% CI,:46-95), 72% specificity (95% CI, 65-79), and 98% negative predictive value (95% CI, 93-100) for cerebral performance category 1-2.

CONCLUSIONS: Cerebral oximetry allows real-time, noninvasive cerebral oxygenation monitoring during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Higher cerebral oxygenation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation is associated with return of spontaneous circulation and neurologically favorable survival to hospital discharge. Achieving higher regional cerebral oxygenation during resuscitation may optimize the chances of cardiac arrest favorable outcomes.