Masevicius FD, et al. Relationship of at Admission Lactate, Unmeasured Anions, and Chloride to the Outcome of Critically Ill Patients. Crit Care Med. 2017 Dec;45(12):e1233-e1239.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between the concentration of the causative anions responsible for the main types of metabolic acidosis and the outcome.
Helmerhorst HJ, Arts DL, Schultz MJ,et al. Metrics of Arterial Hyperoxia and Associated Outcomes in Critical Care. Crit Care Med. 2017 Feb;45(2):187-195.
OBJECTIVE: Emerging evidence has shown the potential risks of arterial hyperoxia, but the lack of a clinical definition and methodologic limitations hamper the interpretation and clinical relevance of previous studies. Our purpose was to evaluate previously used and newly constructed metrics of arterial hyperoxia and systematically assess their association with clinical outcomes in different subgroups in the ICU.
DESIGN: Observational cohort study.
SETTING: Three large tertiary care ICUs in the Netherlands.
PATIENTS: A total of 14,441 eligible ICU patients.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In total, 295,079 arterial blood gas analyses, including the PaO2, between July 2011 and July 2014 were extracted from the patient data management system database. Data from all admissions with more than one PaO2 measurement were supplemented with anonymous demographic and admission and discharge data from the Dutch National Intensive Care Evaluation registry. Mild hyperoxia was defined as PaO2 between 120 and 200 mm Hg; severe hyperoxia as PaO2 greater than 200 mm Hg. Characteristics of existing and newly constructed metrics for arterial hyperoxia were examined, and the associations with hospital mortality (primary outcome), ICU mortality, and ventilator-free days and alive at day 28 were retrospectively analyzed using regression models in different subgroups of patients. Severe hyperoxia was associated with higher mortality rates and fewer ventilator-free days in comparison to both mild hyperoxia and normoxia for all metrics except for the worst PaO2. Adjusted effect estimates for conditional mortality were larger for severe hyperoxia than for mild hyperoxia. This association was found both within and beyond the first 24 hours of admission and was consistent for large subgroups. The largest point estimates were found for the exposure identified by the average PaO2, closely followed by the median PaO2, and these estimates differed substantially between subsets. Time spent in hyperoxia showed a linear and positive relationship with hospital mortality.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that we should limit the PaO2 levels of critically ill patients within a safe range, as we do with other physiologic variables. Analytical metrics of arterial hyperoxia should be judiciously considered when interpreting and comparing study results and future studies are needed to validate our findings in a randomized fashion design.
Chidini G, et al. Early Noninvasive Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist Versus Noninvasive Flow-Triggered Pressure Support Ventilation in Pediatric Acute Respiratory Failure: A Physiologic Randomized Controlled Trial. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2016 Nov;17(11):e487-e495.
OBJECTIVE: Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist has been shown to improve patient-ventilator interaction in children with acute respiratory failure. Objective of this study was to compare the effect of noninvasive neurally adjusted ventilatory assist versus noninvasive flow-triggered pressure support on patient-ventilator interaction in children with acute respiratory failure, when delivered as a first-line respiratory support.
DESIGN: Prospective randomized crossover physiologic study.
SETTING: Pediatric six-bed third-level PICU.
PATIENTS: Eighteen children with acute respiratory failure needing noninvasive ventilation were enrolled at PICU admission.
INTERVENTIONS: Enrolled children were allocated to receive two 60-minutes noninvasive flow-triggered pressure support and noninvasive neurally adjusted ventilatory assist trials in a crossover randomized sequence.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Primary endpoint was the asynchrony index. Parameters describing patient-ventilator interaction and gas exchange were also considered as secondary endpoints. Noninvasive neurally adjusted ventilatory assist compared to noninvasive flow-triggered pressure support: 1) reduced asynchrony index (p = 0.001) and the number of asynchronies per minute for each type of asynchrony; 2) it increased the neuroventilatory efficiency index (p = 0.001), suggesting better neuroventilatory coupling; 3) reduced inspiratory and expiratory delay times (p = 0.001) as well as lower peak and mean airway pressure (p = 0.006 and p = 0.038, respectively); 4) lowered oxygenation index (p = 0.043). No adverse event was reported.
CONCLUSIONS: In children with mild early acute respiratory failure, noninvasive neurally adjusted ventilatory assist was feasible and safe. Noninvasive neurally adjusted ventilatory assist compared to noninvasive flow-triggered pressure support improved patient-ventilator interaction.
Yehya N, et al. Alveolar Dead Space Fraction Discriminates Mortality in Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2016 Feb;17(2):101-9.
OBJECTIVES: Physiologic dead space is associated with mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome, but its measurement is cumbersome. Alveolar dead space fraction relies on the difference between arterial and end-tidal carbon dioxide (alveolar dead space fraction = (PaCO2 – PetCO2) / PaCO2). We aimed to assess the relationship between alveolar dead space fraction and mortality in a cohort of children meeting criteria for acute respiratory distress syndrome (both the Berlin 2012 and the American-European Consensus Conference 1994 acute lung injury) and pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (as defined by the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference in 2015).
DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a prospective, observational cohort.
SETTING: Tertiary care, university affiliated PICU.
PATIENTS: Invasively ventilated children with pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of the 283 children with pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome, 266 had available PetCO2. Alveolar dead space fraction was lower in survivors (median 0.13; interquartile range, 0.06-0.23) than nonsurvivors (0.31; 0.19-0.42; p < 0.001) at pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome onset, but not 24 hours after (survivors 0.12 [0.06-0.18], nonsurvivors 0.14 [0.06-0.25], p = 0.430). Alveolar dead space fraction at pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome onset discriminated mortality with an area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.76 (95% CI, 0.66-0.85; p < 0.001), better than either initial oxygenation index or PaO2/FIO2. In multivariate analysis, alveolar dead space fraction at pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome onset was independently associated with mortality, after adjustment for severity of illness, immunocompromised status, and organ failures.
CONCLUSIONS: Alveolar dead space fraction at pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome onset discriminates mortality and is independently associated with nonsurvival. Alveolar dead space fraction represents a single, useful, readily obtained clinical biomarker reflective of pulmonary and nonpulmonary variables associated with mortality.