Utility of diaphragm pacing in the management of acute cervical spinal cord injury. (Dalal)

Kerwin AJ, et al. Utility of diaphragm pacing in the management of acute cervical spinal cord injury. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2018 Jul 5. [Epub ahead of print]

BACKGROUND: Cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI) is devastating. Respiratory failure, ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP), sepsis, and death frequently occur. Case reports of diaphragm pacing (DPS) have suggested earlier liberation from mechanical ventilation in acute CSCI patients. We hypothesized DPS implantation would decrease VAP and facilitate liberation from ventilation.

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RBC Transfusions Are Associated With Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation in Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. (Land)

Zubrow ME, et al. RBC Transfusions Are Associated With Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation in Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018 Feb;19(2):e88-e96.

OBJECTIVES: Blood products are often transfused in critically ill children, although recent studies have recognized their potential for harm. Translatability to pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome is unknown given that hypoxemia has excluded pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome patients from clinical trials. We aimed to determine whether an association exists between blood product transfusion and survival or duration of ventilation in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome.

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Lung Rest During Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Neonatal Respiratory Failure-Practice Variations and Outcomes. (Duke)

Alapati D, et al. Lung Rest During Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Neonatal Respiratory Failure-Practice Variations and Outcomes. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2017 Jul;18(7):667-674.

OBJECTIVE: Describe practice variations in ventilator strategies used for lung rest during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for respiratory failure in neonates, and assess the potential impact of various lung rest strategies on the duration of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and the duration of mechanical ventilation after decannulation.

DATA SOURCES: Retrospective cohort analysis from the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization registry database during the years 2008-2013.

STUDY SELECTION: All extracorporeal membrane oxygenation runs for infants less than or equal to 30 days of life for pulmonary reasons were included.

DATA EXTRACTION: Ventilator type and ventilator settings used for lung rest at 24 hours after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation initiation were obtained.

DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 3,040 cases met inclusion criteria. Conventional mechanical ventilation was used for lung rest in 88% of cases and high frequency ventilation was used in 12%. In the conventional mechanical ventilation group, 32% used positive end-expiratory pressure strategy of 4-6 cm H2O (low), 22% used 7-9 cm H2O (mid), and 43% used 10-12 cm H2O (high). High frequency ventilation was associated with an increased mean (SEM) hours of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (150.2 [0.05] vs 125 [0.02]; p < 0.001) and an increased mean (SEM) hours of mechanical ventilation after decannulation (135 [0.09] vs 100.2 [0.03]; p = 0.002), compared with conventional mechanical ventilation among survivors. Within the conventional mechanical ventilation group, use of higher positive end-expiratory pressure was associated with a decreased mean (SEM) hours of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (high vs low: 136 [1.06] vs 156 [1.06], p = 0.001; mid vs low: 141 [1.06] vs 156 [1.06]; p = 0.04) but increased duration of mechanical ventilation after decannulation in the high positive end-expiratory pressure group compared with low positive end-expiratory pressure (p = 0.04) among survivors.

CONCLUSIONS: Wide practice variation exists with regard to ventilator settings used for lung rest during neonatal respiratory extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Use of high frequency ventilation when compared with conventional mechanical ventilation and use of low positive end-expiratory pressure strategy when compared with mid positive end-expiratory pressure and high positive end-expiratory pressure strategy is associated with longer duration of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Further research to provide evidence to drive optimization of pulmonary management during neonatal respiratory extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is warranted.

Partial Neuromuscular Blockade during Partial Ventilatory Support in Sedated Patients with High Tidal Volumes. (Stulce)

Doorduin J, Nollet JL, Roesthuis LH, et al. Partial Neuromuscular Blockade during Partial Ventilatory Support in Sedated Patients with High Tidal Volumes. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017 Apr 15;195(8):1033-1042.

RATIONALE: Controlled mechanical ventilation is used to deliver lung-protective ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Despite recognized benefits, such as preserved diaphragm activity, partial support ventilation modes may be incompatible with lung-protective ventilation due to high Vt and high transpulmonary pressure. As an alternative to high-dose sedatives and controlled mechanical ventilation, pharmacologically induced neuromechanical uncoupling of the diaphragm should facilitate lung-protective ventilation under partial support modes.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether partial neuromuscular blockade can facilitate lung-protective ventilation while maintaining diaphragm activity under partial ventilatory support.

METHODS: In a proof-of-concept study, we enrolled 10 patients with lung injury and a Vt greater than 8 ml/kg under pressure support ventilation (PSV) and under sedation. After baseline measurements, rocuronium administration was titrated to a target Vt of 6 ml/kg during neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA). Thereafter, patients were ventilated in PSV and NAVA under continuous rocuronium infusion for 2 hours. Respiratory parameters, hemodynamic parameters, and blood gas values were measured.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Rocuronium titration resulted in significant declines of Vt (mean ± SEM, 9.3 ± 0.6 to 5.6 ± 0.2 ml/kg; P < 0.0001), transpulmonary pressure (26.7 ± 2.5 to 10.7 ± 1.2 cm H2O; P < 0.0001), and diaphragm electrical activity (17.4 ± 2.3 to 4.5 ± 0.7 μV; P < 0.0001), and could be maintained under continuous rocuronium infusion. During titration, pH decreased (7.42 ± 0.02 to 7.35 ± 0.02; P < 0.0001), and mean arterial blood pressure increased (84 ± 6 to 99 ± 6 mm Hg; P = 0.0004), as did heart rate (83 ± 7 to 93 ± 8 beats/min; P = 0.0004).

CONCLUSIONS: Partial neuromuscular blockade facilitates lung-protective ventilation during partial ventilatory support, while maintaining diaphragm activity, in sedated patients with lung injury.