Zaal IJ, et al. Benzodiazepine-associated delirium in critically ill adults. Intensive Care Med. 2015 Dec;41(12):2130-7.
PURPOSE: The association between benzodiazepine use and delirium risk in the ICU remains unclear. Prior investigations have failed to account for disease severity prior to delirium onset, competing events that may preclude delirium detection, other important delirium risk factors, and an adequate number of patients receiving continuous midazolam. The aim of this study was to address these limitations and evaluate the association between benzodiazepine exposure and ICU delirium occurrence.
METHODS: In a cohort of consecutive critically ill adults, daily mental status was classified as either awake without delirium, delirium, or coma. In a first-order Markov model, multinomial logistic regression analysis was used, which considered five possible outcomes the next day (i.e., awake without delirium, delirium, coma, ICU discharge, and death) and 16 delirium-related covariables, to quantify the association between benzodiazepine use and delirium occurrence the following day.
RESULTS: Among 1112 patients, 9867 daily transitions occurred. Benzodiazepine administration in an awake patient without delirium was associated with increased risk of delirium the next day [OR 1.04 (per 5 mg of midazolam equivalent administered) 95 % CI 1.02-1.05). When the method of benzodiazepine administration was incorporated in the model, the odds of transitioning to delirium was higher with benzodiazepines given continuously (OR 1.04, 95 % CI 1.03-1.06) compared to benzodiazepines given intermittently (OR 0.97, 95 % CI 0.88-1.05).
CONCLUSIONS: After addressing potential methodological limitations of prior studies, we confirm that benzodiazepine administration increases the risk for delirium in critically ill adults but this association seems to be limited to continuous infusion use only.
Rehder KJ, et al. Increased Occurrence of Tracheal Intubation-Associated Events During Nights and Weekends in the PICU. Crit Care Med. 2015 Dec; 43(12):2668-74
OBJECTIVES: Adverse tracheal intubation-associated events are common in PICUs. Prior studies suggest provider and practice factors are important contributors to tracheal intubation-associated events. Little is known about how the incidence of tracheal intubation-associated events is affected by the time of day, day of the week, or presence of in-hospital attending-level intensivists. We hypothesize that tracheal intubations occurring during nights and weekends are associated with a higher frequency of tracheal intubation-associated events.
DESIGN: Retrospective observational cohort study.
SETTING: Twenty international PICUs.
SUBJECTS: Critically ill children requiring tracheal intubation.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We analyzed 5,096 tracheal intubation courses from July 2010 to March 2014 from the prospective multicenter National Emergency Airway Registry for Children. Frequency of a priori-defined tracheal intubation-associated events was the primary outcome. Occurrence of any tracheal intubation-associated events and severe tracheal intubation-associated events were more common during nights (19:00 to 06:59) and weekends compared with weekdays (19% vs 16%, p = 0.01; 7% vs 6%, p = 0.05, respectively). This difference was significant in emergent intubations after adjusting for site-level clustering and patient factors: for any tracheal intubation-associated events: adjusted odds ratio, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.02-1.41; p = 0.03; but not significant in nonemergent intubations: adjusted odds ratio, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.63-1.40; p = 0.75. For emergent intubations, PICUs with home-call attending coverage had a significantly higher frequency of tracheal intubation-associated events during nights and weekends (adjusted odds ratio, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.01-1.66; p = 0.04), and this difference was attenuated in PICUs with in-hospital attending coverage (adjusted odds ratio, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.91-1.39; p = 0.28).
CONCLUSIONS: Higher occurrence of tracheal intubation-associated events was observed during nights and weekends. This difference was primarily attributed to emergent intubations. In- hospital attending physician coverage attenuated this discrepancy between weekdays versus nights and weekends but was not fully protective for tracheal intubation-associated events.