Risk factors for first cerebrospinal fluid shunt infection: findings from a multi-center prospective cohort study. (Kamat)

Simon TD, Butler J, Whitlock KB, et al. Risk factors for first cerebrospinal fluid shunt infection: findings from a multi-center prospective cohort study. J Pediatr. 2014 Jun;164(6):1462-1468.e2.

OBJECTIVE: To quantify the extent to which cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt revisions are associated with increased risk of CSF shunt infection, after adjusting for patient factors that may contribute to infection risk.

STUDY DESIGN: We used the Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network registry to assemble a large prospective 6-center cohort of 1036 children undergoing initial CSF shunt placement between April 2008 and January 2012. The primary outcome of interest was first CSF shunt infection. Data for initial CSF shunt placement and all subsequent CSF shunt revisions prior to first CSF shunt infection, where applicable, were obtained. The risk of first infection was estimated using a multivariable Cox proportional hazard model accounting for patient characteristics and CSF shunt revisions, and is reported using hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CI.

RESULTS: Of the 102 children who developed first infection within 12 months of placement, 33 (32%) followed one or more CSF shunt revisions. Baseline factors independently associated with risk of first infection included: gastrostomy tube (HR 2.0, 95% CI, 1.1, 3.3), age 6-12 months (HR 0.3, 95% CI, 0.1, 0.8), and prior neurosurgery (HR 0.4, 95% CI, 0.2, 0.9). After controlling for baseline factors, infection risk was most significantly associated with the need for revision (1 revision vs none, HR 3.9, 95% CI, 2.2, 6.5; ≥2 revisions, HR 13.0, 95% CI, 6.5, 24.9).

CONCLUSIONS: This study quantifies the elevated risk of infection associated with shunt revisions observed in clinical practice. To reduce risk of infection risk, further work should optimize revision procedures.

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Family participation during intensive care unit rounds: attitudes and experiences of parents and healthcare providers in a tertiary pediatric intensive care unit. (Petrillo)

Stickney CA, Ziniel SI, Brett MS, Truog RD. Family participation during intensive care unit rounds: attitudes and experiences of parents and healthcare providers in a tertiary pediatric intensive care unit. J Pediatr. 2013 Nov 8.

OBJECTIVE: To compare the experiences and attitudes of healthcare providers and parents regarding parental participation in morning rounds, in particular to evaluate for differences in perception of parental comprehension of rounds content and parental comfort with attendance, and to identify subgroups of parents who are more likely to report comfort with attending rounds.

STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of 100 parents and 131 healthcare providers in a tertiary care pediatric medical/surgical intensive care unit. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze survey responses; univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to compare parent and healthcare provider responses.

RESULTS: Of parents, 92% reported a desire to attend rounds, and 54% of healthcare providers reported a preference for parental presence. There were significant discrepancies in perception of understanding between the 2 groups, with healthcare providers much less likely to perceive that parents understood both the format (30% vs 73%, P < .001) and content (21% vs 84%, P < .001) of rounds compared with parents. Analysis of parent surveys did not reveal characteristics correlated with increased comfort or desire to attend rounds.

CONCLUSIONS: A majority of parents wish to participate in morning rounds, whereas healthcare provider opinions are mixed. Important discrepancies exist between parent and healthcare provider perceptions of parental comfort and comprehension on rounds, which may be important in facilitating parental presence.

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Hypokalemia during treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis: clinical evidence for an aldosterone-like action of insulin. (Hebbar)

J Pediatr. 2013 Jul;163(1):207-212.e1. PMID: 23410602

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the development of hypokalemia in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) treated in the pediatric critical care unit (PCCU) could be caused by increased potassium (K(+)) excretion and its association with insulin treatment.

STUDY DESIGN: In this prospective observational study of patients with DKA admitted to the PCCU, blood and timed urine samples were collected for measurement of sodium (Na(+)), K(+), and creatinine concentrations and for calculations of Na(+) and K(+) balances. K(+) excretion rate was expressed as urine K(+)-to-creatinine ratio and fractional excretion of K(+).

RESULTS: Of 31 patients, 25 (81%) developed hypokalemia (plasma K(+) concentration <3.5 mmol/L) in the PCCU at a median time of 24 hours after therapy began. At nadir plasma K(+) concentration, urine K(+)-to-creatinine ratio and fractional excretion of K(+) were greater in patients who developed hypokalemia compared with those without hypokalemia (19.8 vs 6.7, P = .04; and 31.3% vs 9.4%, P = .004, respectively). Patients in the hypokalemia group received a continuous infusion of intravenous insulin for a longer time (36.5 vs 20 hours, P = .015) and greater amount of Na(+) (19.4 vs 12.8 mmol/kg, P = .02). At peak kaliuresis, insulin dose was higher in the hypokalemia group (median 0.07, range 0-0.24 vs median 0.025, range 0-0.05 IU/kg; P = .01), and there was a significant correlation between K(+) and Na(+) excretion (r = 0.67, P < .0001).

CONCLUSIONS: Hypokalemia was a delayed complication of DKA treatment in the PCCU, associated with high K(+) and Na(+) excretion rates and a prolonged infusion of high doses of insulin.

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