Daytime versus nighttime extubations: A comparison of reintubation, length of stay, and mortality. (Petrillo)

Tischenkel BR, Gong MN, Shiloh AL, Pittignano VC, Keschner YG, Glueck JA,
Cohen HW, Eisen LA. Daytime Versus Nighttime Extubations: A Comparison of
Reintubation, Length of Stay, and Mortality. J Intensive Care Med. 2014 Apr 24.
[Epub ahead of print]

PURPOSE: Despite studies regarding outcomes of day versus night medical care, consequences of nighttime extubations are unknown. It may be favorable to extubate patients off-hours, as soon as weaning parameters are met, since this could decrease complications and shorten length of stay (LOS). Conversely, nighttime extubation could be deleterious, as staffing varies during this time. We hypothesized that patients have similar reintubation rates, irrespective of extubation time.

METHODS: A retrospective cohort study performed at 2 hospitals within a tertiary academic medical center included all adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients extubated between July 01, 2009 and May 31, 2011. Those extubated due to withdrawal of support were excluded. The nighttime group included patients extubated between 7:00 pm and 6:59 am and the daytime group included patients extubated between 7:00 am and 6:59 pm.

RESULTS: Of 2240 extubated patients, 1555 were extubated during the day and 685 were extubated at night. Of these, 119 (7.7%) and 26 (3.8%), respectively, were reintubated in 24 hours with likelihood of reintubation significantly lower for nighttime than daytime after multivariable adjustment (odds ratio [OR] = 0.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.3-0.9, P = .01), with a similar trend for reintubation within 72 hours (OR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.5-1.0, P = .07). There was a trend toward decreased mortality for patients extubated at night (OR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.3-1.0, P = .06). There was also a significantly lower LOS for patients extubated at night (P = .002). In a confirmatory frequency-matched analysis, there was no significant difference in reintubation proportion or mortality, but LOS was significantly less in those extubated at night.

CONCLUSIONS: Intensive care unit extubations at night did not have higher likelihood of reintubation, LOS, or mortality compared to those during the day. Since patients should be extubated as soon as they meet parameters in order to potentially decrease complications of mechanical ventilation, these data provide no support for delaying extubation until daytime.

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Outcome of pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients requiring mechanical ventilation. (Stockwell)

Aspesberro F, Guthrie KA, Woolfrey AE, Brogan TV, Roberts JS. Outcome of pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients requiring mechanical ventilation. J Intensive Care Med. 2014 Jan-Feb;29(1):31-7.

PURPOSE: To assess the risk factors for intensive care unit admission among children receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and to test the hypothesis that multiple organ failure (MOF) increases the odds of death among HSCT patients who receive mechanical ventilation (MV).

METHODS: The chart of all consecutive HSCTs at Seattle Children’s Hospital and pediatric HSCT patients admitted to the pediatric critical care unit of a tertiary care pediatric hospital from January 2000 to September 2006 were reviewed retrospectively.

RESULTS: Charts of 266 HSCT patients were reviewed. Nonmalignant disease compared to hematologic malignancy, acute graft versus host disease grades III and IV, and second transplant increased the odds of pediatric intensive care unit admission. Among patients receiving MV for >24 hours, 9 (25%) survived for 6 months, while 8 patients (22%) were long-term survivors with a median follow-up time of 3.6 years, a significant improvement compared to a long-term survival of 7% (odds ratio 0.25, 95% confidence intervals: 0.09-0.72, P = .01) reported in a previously published cohort of pediatric HSCT patients at the same institution from 1983 to 1996. Cardiovascular failure, duration of MV for greater than 1 week, and prolonged receipt of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) increased the risk of mortality.

CONCLUSIONS: Six-month survival of pediatric HSCT patients was 25% and the odds of death were increased by cardiovascular failure but not by MOF. Receipt of mechanical support (ventilation, CRRT) or cardiovascular support (inotropic agents) decreased the likelihood of long-term survival.

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Effect of normal saline and half normal saline on serum electrolytes during recovery phase of diabetic ketoacidosis. (Stockwell)

Basnet S, Venepalli PK, Andoh J, Verhulst S, Koirala J. Effect of normal saline and half normal saline on serum electrolytes during recovery phase of diabetic ketoacidosis. J Intensive Care Med. 2014 Jan-Feb;29(1):38-42.

Objective: This study aims to describe the effect of 0.9% saline (NS) versus 0.45% saline (half NS) when used during recovery phase of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in children.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of all children (1-18 years old) with DKA admitted in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) from 2005 to 2009 was undertaken. The primary end point was effect on serum electrolytes and acidosis.

Results: Compared to 47 patients who received only NS (group A) throughout the recovery period and 33 patients who received NS but were switched to half NS (group B) at some point during recovery, 41 who received only half NS (group C) had a significant decrease in corrected serum sodium (P < .01). Hyperchloremia leading to nonanion gap acidosis was significantly greater in NS groups A and B than in half NS group C (P < .01). This led to increased duration of insulin infusion and length of stay in the PICU in the NS groups.

Conclusions: Hyperchloremia resulting in nonanion gap acidosis can occur and may prolong the duration of insulin infusion and length of PICU stay in patients receiving NS as post-bolus rehydration fluid. Alternatively, the use of half NS may result in a decrease in serum-corrected sodium. Providers need to be vigilant toward this while using higher or lower sodium chloride when managing children with DKA. Larger trials are required to study the clinical significance of the results of this study.

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The effect of the pressure-volume curve for positive end-expiratory pressure titration on clinical outcomes in acute respiratory distress syndrome: a systematic review. (Stockwell)

Hata JS, Togashi K, Kumar AB, Hodges LD, Kaiser EF, Tessmann PB, Faust CA, Sessler DI. The Effect of the Pressure-Volume Curve for Positive End-Expiratory Pressure Titration on Clinical Outcomes in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Systematic Review. J Intensive Care Med. 2013 Jul 11. [Epub ahead of print]

PURPOSE Methods to optimize positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remain controversial despite decades of research. The pressure-volume curve (PVC), a graphical ventilator relationship, has been proposed for prescription of PEEP in ARDS. Whether the use of PVC’s improves survival remains unclear.

METHODS In this systematic review, we assessed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing PVC-guided treatment with conventional PEEP management on survival in ARDS based on the search of the National Library of Medicine from January 1, 1960, to January 1, 2010, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Three RCTs were identified with a total of 185 patients, 97 with PVC-guided treatment and 88 with conventional PEEP management.

RESULTS The PVC-guided PEEP was associated with an increased probability of 28-day or hospital survival (odds ratio [OR] 2.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5, 4.9) using a random-effects model without significant heterogeneity (I 2 test: P = .75). The PVC-guided ventilator support was associated with reduced cumulative risk of mortality (-0.24 (95% CI -0.38, -0.11). The PVC-managed patients received greater PEEP (standardized mean difference [SMD] 5.7 cm H2O, 95% CI 2.4, 9.0) and lower plateau pressures (SMD -1.2 cm H2O, 95% CI -2.2, -0.2), albeit with greater hypercapnia with increased arterial pCO2 (SMD 8 mm Hg, 95% CI 2, 14). Weight-adjusted tidal volumes were significantly lower in PVC-guided than conventional ventilator management (SMD 2.6 mL/kg, 95% CI -3.3, -2.0).

CONCLUSION This analysis supports an association that ventilator management guided by the PVC for PEEP management may augment survival in ARDS. Nonetheless, only 3 randomized trials have addressed the question, and the total number of patients remains low. Further outcomes studies appear required for the validation of this methodology.

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