Analysis of Unplanned Intensive Care Unit Admissions in Postoperative Pediatric Patients. (Sirignano)

Landry EK, et al. Analysis of Unplanned Intensive Care Unit Admissions in Postoperative Pediatric Patients. J Intensive Care Med. 2016 Aug 15. [Epub ahead of print]

BACKGROUND: Currently, there are only a few retrospective, single-institution studies that have addressed the prevalence and risk factors associated with unplanned admissions to the pediatric intensive care unit (ICU) after surgery. Based on the limited amount of studies, it appears that airway and respiratory complications put a child at increased risk for unplanned ICU admission. A more extensive and diverse analysis of unplanned postoperative admissions to the ICU is needed to address risk factors that have yet to be revealed by the current literature.

AIM: To establish a rate of unplanned postoperative ICU admissions in pediatric patients using a large, multi-institution data set and to further characterize the associated risk factors.

METHODS: Data from the National Anesthesia Clinical Outcomes Registry were analyzed. We recorded the overall risk of unplanned postoperative ICU admission in patients younger than 18 years and performed univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify the associated patient, surgical, and anesthetic-related characteristics.

RESULTS: Of the 324 818 cases analyzed, 211 reported an unexpected ICU admission. There was an increased likelihood of unplanned postoperative ICU in infants (age <1 year) and children who were classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification of III or IV. Likewise, longer case duration and cases requiring general anesthesia were also associated with unplanned ICU admissions.

CONCLUSION: This study establishes a rate of unplanned ICU admission following surgery in the heterogeneous pediatric population. This is the first study to utilize such a large data set encompassing a wide range of practice environments to identify risk factors leading to unplanned postoperative ICU admissions. Our study revealed that patient, surgical, and anesthetic complexity each contributed to an increased number of unplanned ICU admissions in the pediatric population.

Potassium abnormalities in a pediatric intensive care unit: frequency and severity. (Williams)

Cummings BM, Macklin EA, Yager PH, Sharma A, Noviski N. Potassium abnormalities in a pediatric intensive care unit: frequency and severity. J Intensive Care Med. 2014 Sep;29(5):269-74.

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BACKGROUND: Potassium abnormalities are common in critically ill patients. We describe the spectrum of potassium abnormalities in our tertiary-level pediatric intensive care unit (PICU).

METHODS: Retrospective observational cohort of all the patients admitted to a single-center tertiary PICU over a 1-year period. Medical records and laboratory results were obtained through a central electronic data repository.

RESULTS: A total of 512 patients had a potassium measurement. Of a total of 4484 potassium measurements, one-third had abnormal values. Hypokalemia affected 40% of the admissions. Mild hypokalemia (3-3.4 mmol/L) affected 24% of the admissions. Moderate or severe hypokalemia (K < 3.0 mmol/L) affected 16% of the admissions. Hyperkalemia affected 29% of the admissions. Mild hyperkalemia (5.1-6.0 mmol/L) affected 17% of the admissions. Moderate or severe hyperkalemia (>6.0 mmol/L) affected 12%. Hemolysis affected 2% of all the samples and 24% of hyperkalemic values. On univariate analysis, severity of hypokalemia was associated with mortality (odds ratio 2.2, P = .003).

CONCLUSIONS: Mild potassium abnormalities are common in the PICU. Repeating hemolyzed hyperkalemic samples may be beneficial. Guidance in monitoring frequencies of potassium abnormalities in pediatric critical care is needed.

Fluid resuscitation in septic shock the effect of increasing fluid balance on mortality. (Ruth)

Sadaka F, Juarez M, Naydenov S, O’Brien J. Fluid resuscitation in septic shock the effect of increasing fluid balance on mortality. J Intensive Care Med. 2013 Feb 27;29(4):213-217. [Epub ahead of print]

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PURPOSE: To determine whether progressively increasing fluid balance after initial fluid resuscitation for septic shock is associated with increased mortality.

METHODS: A retrospective review of the use of intravenous fluids in patients with septic shock in a large university affiliated hospital with 56 medical-surgical intensive care unit beds. We analyzed the data of 350 patients with septic shock who were managed according to the Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines. Based on net fluid balance at 24 hours, we examined the results of increase in positive fluid balance on the risk of in-hospital mortality. Patients were divided into 4 groups based on the amount of fluid balance by 24 hours, based on 6-L aliquots.

RESULTS: At 24 hours, the average fluid balance was +6.5 L. After correcting for age and sequential organ failure assessment score, a more positive fluid balance at 24 hours significantly increased the risk of in-hospital mortality. Using Cox proportional hazard analysis, excess 12-, 18-, and 24-L positive fluid balance had higher risk of mortality than those patients with a neutral to positive 6-L fluid balance (reference group). Adjusted hazard ratios, 1.519 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.353-1.685), 1.740 (95% CI, 1.467-2.013), and 1.620 (95% CI, 1.197-2.043), respectively, P < .05.

CONCLUSION: In patients with septic shock resuscitated according to current guidelines, a more positive fluid balance at 24 hours is associated with an increase in the risk of mortality. Optimal survival occurred at neutral fluid balance and up to 6-L positive fluid balance at 24 hours after the development of septic shock.

 

Daytime versus nighttime extubations: A comparison of reintubation, length of stay, and mortality. (Petrillo)

Tischenkel BR, Gong MN, Shiloh AL, Pittignano VC, Keschner YG, Glueck JA,
Cohen HW, Eisen LA. Daytime Versus Nighttime Extubations: A Comparison of
Reintubation, Length of Stay, and Mortality. J Intensive Care Med. 2014 Apr 24.
[Epub ahead of print]

PURPOSE: Despite studies regarding outcomes of day versus night medical care, consequences of nighttime extubations are unknown. It may be favorable to extubate patients off-hours, as soon as weaning parameters are met, since this could decrease complications and shorten length of stay (LOS). Conversely, nighttime extubation could be deleterious, as staffing varies during this time. We hypothesized that patients have similar reintubation rates, irrespective of extubation time.

METHODS: A retrospective cohort study performed at 2 hospitals within a tertiary academic medical center included all adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients extubated between July 01, 2009 and May 31, 2011. Those extubated due to withdrawal of support were excluded. The nighttime group included patients extubated between 7:00 pm and 6:59 am and the daytime group included patients extubated between 7:00 am and 6:59 pm.

RESULTS: Of 2240 extubated patients, 1555 were extubated during the day and 685 were extubated at night. Of these, 119 (7.7%) and 26 (3.8%), respectively, were reintubated in 24 hours with likelihood of reintubation significantly lower for nighttime than daytime after multivariable adjustment (odds ratio [OR] = 0.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.3-0.9, P = .01), with a similar trend for reintubation within 72 hours (OR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.5-1.0, P = .07). There was a trend toward decreased mortality for patients extubated at night (OR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.3-1.0, P = .06). There was also a significantly lower LOS for patients extubated at night (P = .002). In a confirmatory frequency-matched analysis, there was no significant difference in reintubation proportion or mortality, but LOS was significantly less in those extubated at night.

CONCLUSIONS: Intensive care unit extubations at night did not have higher likelihood of reintubation, LOS, or mortality compared to those during the day. Since patients should be extubated as soon as they meet parameters in order to potentially decrease complications of mechanical ventilation, these data provide no support for delaying extubation until daytime.

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Outcome of pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients requiring mechanical ventilation. (Stockwell)

Aspesberro F, Guthrie KA, Woolfrey AE, Brogan TV, Roberts JS. Outcome of pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients requiring mechanical ventilation. J Intensive Care Med. 2014 Jan-Feb;29(1):31-7.

PURPOSE: To assess the risk factors for intensive care unit admission among children receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and to test the hypothesis that multiple organ failure (MOF) increases the odds of death among HSCT patients who receive mechanical ventilation (MV).

METHODS: The chart of all consecutive HSCTs at Seattle Children’s Hospital and pediatric HSCT patients admitted to the pediatric critical care unit of a tertiary care pediatric hospital from January 2000 to September 2006 were reviewed retrospectively.

RESULTS: Charts of 266 HSCT patients were reviewed. Nonmalignant disease compared to hematologic malignancy, acute graft versus host disease grades III and IV, and second transplant increased the odds of pediatric intensive care unit admission. Among patients receiving MV for >24 hours, 9 (25%) survived for 6 months, while 8 patients (22%) were long-term survivors with a median follow-up time of 3.6 years, a significant improvement compared to a long-term survival of 7% (odds ratio 0.25, 95% confidence intervals: 0.09-0.72, P = .01) reported in a previously published cohort of pediatric HSCT patients at the same institution from 1983 to 1996. Cardiovascular failure, duration of MV for greater than 1 week, and prolonged receipt of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) increased the risk of mortality.

CONCLUSIONS: Six-month survival of pediatric HSCT patients was 25% and the odds of death were increased by cardiovascular failure but not by MOF. Receipt of mechanical support (ventilation, CRRT) or cardiovascular support (inotropic agents) decreased the likelihood of long-term survival.

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Effect of normal saline and half normal saline on serum electrolytes during recovery phase of diabetic ketoacidosis. (Stockwell)

Basnet S, Venepalli PK, Andoh J, Verhulst S, Koirala J. Effect of normal saline and half normal saline on serum electrolytes during recovery phase of diabetic ketoacidosis. J Intensive Care Med. 2014 Jan-Feb;29(1):38-42.

Objective: This study aims to describe the effect of 0.9% saline (NS) versus 0.45% saline (half NS) when used during recovery phase of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in children.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of all children (1-18 years old) with DKA admitted in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) from 2005 to 2009 was undertaken. The primary end point was effect on serum electrolytes and acidosis.

Results: Compared to 47 patients who received only NS (group A) throughout the recovery period and 33 patients who received NS but were switched to half NS (group B) at some point during recovery, 41 who received only half NS (group C) had a significant decrease in corrected serum sodium (P < .01). Hyperchloremia leading to nonanion gap acidosis was significantly greater in NS groups A and B than in half NS group C (P < .01). This led to increased duration of insulin infusion and length of stay in the PICU in the NS groups.

Conclusions: Hyperchloremia resulting in nonanion gap acidosis can occur and may prolong the duration of insulin infusion and length of PICU stay in patients receiving NS as post-bolus rehydration fluid. Alternatively, the use of half NS may result in a decrease in serum-corrected sodium. Providers need to be vigilant toward this while using higher or lower sodium chloride when managing children with DKA. Larger trials are required to study the clinical significance of the results of this study.

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