The Utility of High-Fidelity Simulation for Training Critical Care Fellows in the Management of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Emergencies: A Randomized Controlled Trial. (Sirignano)

Zakhary BM, et al. The Utility of High-Fidelity Simulation for Training Critical Care Fellows in the Management of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Emergencies: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Crit Care Med. 2017 Aug;45(8):1367-1373.

OBJECTIVE: Although extracorporeal membrane oxygenation volume has increased, proficiency in the technology requires extensive training. We compared traditional water-drill-based extracorporeal membrane oxygenation training with simulation-based extracorporeal membrane oxygenation training with the hypothesis that simulation-based training is superior.

DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial.

SETTING: Academic medical center.

SUBJECTS: Pulmonary/critical care fellows.

INTERVENTIONS: Participants had a preintervention simulated extracorporeal membrane oxygenation emergency (Sim1-recirculation) then randomized into simulation and traditional groups. Each group participated in three teaching scenarios, via high-fidelity simulation or via water-drills. After 6 weeks and after 1 year, participants returned for two simulated extracorporeal membrane oxygenation emergencies (Sim2-pump failure and Sim3-access insufficiency). Sim2 was a case encountered during teaching, whereas Sim3 was novel. A critical action, necessary for resolution of each scenario, was preidentified for timing.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Primary outcome was time required to perform critical actions. Twenty-one fellows participated in the study (simulation, 10; traditional, 11). Groups had similar scenario scores (p = 0.4) and times to critical action (p = 0.8) on Sim1. At 6 weeks, both groups had similar scenario scores on Sim2 (p = 0.5), but the simulation group scored higher on Sim3 (p = 0.03). Times to critical actions were shorter in the simulation group during Sim2 (127 vs 174 s, p = 0.004) and Sim3 (159 vs 300 s; p = 0.04). These findings persisted at 1 year.

CONCLUSIONS: In novice critical care fellows, simulation-based extracorporeal membrane oxygenation training is superior to traditional training. Benefits transfer to novel scenarios and are maintained over the long term. Further studies evaluating the utility of simulation in other learner groups and for maintenance of proficiency are required.

Dysglycemia, Glycemic Variability, and Outcome After Cardiac Arrest and Temperature Management at 33°C and 36°C. (Sirignano)

Borgquist O, et al. Dysglycemia, Glycemic Variability, and Outcome After Cardiac Arrest and Temperature Management at 33°C and 36°C. Crit Care Med. 2017 Aug;45(8):1337-1343.

OBJECTIVES: Dysglycemia and glycemic variability are associated with poor outcomes in critically ill patients. Targeted temperature management alters blood glucose homeostasis. We investigated the association between blood glucose concentrations and glycemic variability and the neurologic outcomes of patients randomized to targeted temperature management at 33°C or 36°C after cardiac arrest.

DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of the multicenter TTM-trial. Primary outcome of this analysis was neurologic outcome after 6 months, referred to as “Cerebral Performance Category.”

SETTING: Thirty-six sites in Europe and Australia.

PATIENTS: All 939 patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of presumed cardiac cause that had been included in the TTM-trial.

INTERVENTIONS: Targeted temperature management at 33°C or 36°C.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Nonparametric tests as well as multiple logistic regression and mixed effects logistic regression models were used. Median glucose concentrations on hospital admission differed significantly between Cerebral Performance Category outcomes (p < 0.0001). Hyper- and hypoglycemia were associated with poor neurologic outcome (p = 0.001 and p = 0.054). In the multiple logistic regression models, the median glycemic level was an independent predictor of poor Cerebral Performance Category (Cerebral Performance Category, 3-5) with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.13 in the adjusted model (p = 0.008; 95% CI, 1.03-1.24). It was also a predictor in the mixed model, which served as a sensitivity analysis to adjust for the multiple time points. The proportion of hyperglycemia was higher in the 33°C group compared with the 36°C group.

CONCLUSION: Higher blood glucose levels at admission and during the first 36 hours, and higher glycemic variability, were associated with poor neurologic outcome and death. More patients in the 33°C treatment arm had hyperglycemia.

Diagnostic Accuracy of Central Venous Catheter Confirmation by Bedside Ultrasound Versus Chest Radiography in Critically Ill Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. (Carroll)

Ablordeppey EA, Drewry AM, Beyer AB, et al. Diagnostic Accuracy of Central Venous Catheter Confirmation by Bedside Ultrasound Versus Chest Radiography in Critically Ill Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Crit Care Med. 2017 Apr;45(4):715-724.

OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the accuracy of bedside ultrasound for confirmation of central venous catheter position and exclusion of pneumothorax compared with chest radiography.

DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, reference lists, conference proceedings and ClinicalTrials.gov.

STUDY SELECTION: Articles and abstracts describing the diagnostic accuracy of bedside ultrasound compared with chest radiography for confirmation of central venous catheters in sufficient detail to reconstruct 2 × 2 contingency tables were reviewed. Primary outcomes included the accuracy of confirming catheter positioning and detecting a pneumothorax. Secondary outcomes included feasibility, interrater reliability, and efficiency to complete bedside ultrasound confirmation of central venous catheter position.

DATA EXTRACTION: Investigators abstracted study details including research design and sonographic imaging technique to detect catheter malposition and procedure-related pneumothorax. Diagnostic accuracy measures included pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio.

DATA SYNTHESIS: Fifteen studies with 1,553 central venous catheter placements were identified with a pooled sensitivity and specificity of catheter malposition by ultrasound of 0.82 (0.77-0.86) and 0.98 (0.97-0.99), respectively. The pooled positive and negative likelihood ratios of catheter malposition by ultrasound were 31.12 (14.72-65.78) and 0.25 (0.13-0.47). The sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound for pneumothorax detection was nearly 100% in the participating studies. Bedside ultrasound reduced mean central venous catheter confirmation time by 58.3 minutes. Risk of bias and clinical heterogeneity in the studies were high.

CONCLUSIONS: Bedside ultrasound is faster than radiography at identifying pneumothorax after central venous catheter insertion. When a central venous catheter malposition exists, bedside ultrasound will identify four out of every five earlier than chest radiography.

Delirium in Critically Ill Children: An International Point Prevalence Study. (Carroll)

Traube C, Silver G, Reeder RW, et al. Delirium in Critically Ill Children: An International Point Prevalence Study. Crit Care Med. 2017 Apr; 45(4) :584-590.

OBJECTIVES: To determine prevalence of delirium in critically ill children and explore associated risk factors.

DESIGN: Multi-institutional point prevalence study.

SETTING: Twenty-five pediatric critical care units in the United States, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Australia, and Saudi Arabia.

PATIENTS: All children admitted to the pediatric critical care units on designated study days (n = 994).

INTERVENTION: Children were screened for delirium using the Cornell Assessment of Pediatric Delirium by the bedside nurse. Demographic and treatment-related variables were collected.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Primary study outcome measure was prevalence of delirium. In 159 children, a final determination of mental status could not be ascertained. Of the 835 remaining subjects, 25% screened positive for delirium, 13% were classified as comatose, and 62% were delirium-free and coma-free. Delirium prevalence rates varied significantly with reason for ICU admission, with highest delirium rates found in children admitted with an infectious or inflammatory disorder. For children who were in the PICU for 6 or more days, delirium prevalence rate was 38%. In a multivariate model, risk factors independently associated with development of delirium included age less than 2 years, mechanical ventilation, benzodiazepines, narcotics, use of physical restraints, and exposure to vasopressors and antiepileptics.

CONCLUSIONS: Delirium is a prevalent complication of critical illness in children, with identifiable risk factors. Further multi-institutional, longitudinal studies are required to investigate effect of delirium on long-term outcomes and possible preventive and treatment measures. Universal delirium screening is practical and can be implemented in pediatric critical care units.