Evaluation of a Pediatric Early Warning Score Across Different Subspecialty Patients. (Duke)

Dean NP, et al. Evaluation of a Pediatric Early Warning Score Across Different Subspecialty Patients. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2017 Jul;18(7):655-660.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of a Pediatric Early Warning Score to predict deterioration in different subspecialty patient populations.

DESIGN: Single center, retrospective cohort study. Patients were classified into five groups: 1) cardiac; 2) hematology/oncology/bone marrow transplant; 3) surgical; 4) neurologic; and 5) general medical. The relationship between the Pediatric Early Warning Score and unplanned ICU transfer requiring initiation of specific ICU therapies (intubation, high-flow nasal cannula, noninvasive ventilation, inotropes, or aggressive fluid hydration within 12 hr of transfer) was evaluated.

SETTING: Tertiary care, free-standing, academic children’s hospital.

PATIENTS: All hospitalized acute care patients admitted over a 6-month time period (September 2012 to March 2013).

INTERVENTIONS: None.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: During the study time period, 33,800 patient-days and 136 deteriorations were evaluated. Area under the curve ranged from 0.88 (surgical) to 0.94 (cardiac). Sensitivities for a Pediatric Early Warning Score greater than or equal to 3 ranged from 75% (surgical) to 94% (cardiology) and number needed to evaluate to find one deterioration was 11.5 (neurologic) to 43 patients (surgical). Sensitivities for a Pediatric Early Warning Score greater than or equal to 4 ranged from 54% (general medical) to 79% (hematology/oncology/bone marrow transplant) and number needed to evaluate of 5.5 (neurologic) to 12 patients (general medical). Sensitivities for a Pediatric Early Warning Score of greater than or equal to 5 ranged from 25% (surgical) to 58% (hematology/oncology/bone marrow transplant) and number needed to evaluate of 3.5 (cardiac, hematology/oncology/bone marrow transplant, neurologic) to eight patients (surgical).

CONCLUSIONS: An elevated Pediatric Early Warning Score is associated with ICU transfer and receipt of ICU-specific interventions in patients across different pediatric subspecialty patient populations.

Lung Rest During Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Neonatal Respiratory Failure-Practice Variations and Outcomes. (Duke)

Alapati D, et al. Lung Rest During Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Neonatal Respiratory Failure-Practice Variations and Outcomes. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2017 Jul;18(7):667-674.

OBJECTIVE: Describe practice variations in ventilator strategies used for lung rest during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for respiratory failure in neonates, and assess the potential impact of various lung rest strategies on the duration of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and the duration of mechanical ventilation after decannulation.

DATA SOURCES: Retrospective cohort analysis from the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization registry database during the years 2008-2013.

STUDY SELECTION: All extracorporeal membrane oxygenation runs for infants less than or equal to 30 days of life for pulmonary reasons were included.

DATA EXTRACTION: Ventilator type and ventilator settings used for lung rest at 24 hours after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation initiation were obtained.

DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 3,040 cases met inclusion criteria. Conventional mechanical ventilation was used for lung rest in 88% of cases and high frequency ventilation was used in 12%. In the conventional mechanical ventilation group, 32% used positive end-expiratory pressure strategy of 4-6 cm H2O (low), 22% used 7-9 cm H2O (mid), and 43% used 10-12 cm H2O (high). High frequency ventilation was associated with an increased mean (SEM) hours of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (150.2 [0.05] vs 125 [0.02]; p < 0.001) and an increased mean (SEM) hours of mechanical ventilation after decannulation (135 [0.09] vs 100.2 [0.03]; p = 0.002), compared with conventional mechanical ventilation among survivors. Within the conventional mechanical ventilation group, use of higher positive end-expiratory pressure was associated with a decreased mean (SEM) hours of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (high vs low: 136 [1.06] vs 156 [1.06], p = 0.001; mid vs low: 141 [1.06] vs 156 [1.06]; p = 0.04) but increased duration of mechanical ventilation after decannulation in the high positive end-expiratory pressure group compared with low positive end-expiratory pressure (p = 0.04) among survivors.

CONCLUSIONS: Wide practice variation exists with regard to ventilator settings used for lung rest during neonatal respiratory extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Use of high frequency ventilation when compared with conventional mechanical ventilation and use of low positive end-expiratory pressure strategy when compared with mid positive end-expiratory pressure and high positive end-expiratory pressure strategy is associated with longer duration of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Further research to provide evidence to drive optimization of pulmonary management during neonatal respiratory extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is warranted.

The Utility of High-Fidelity Simulation for Training Critical Care Fellows in the Management of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Emergencies: A Randomized Controlled Trial. (Sirignano)

Zakhary BM, et al. The Utility of High-Fidelity Simulation for Training Critical Care Fellows in the Management of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Emergencies: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Crit Care Med. 2017 Aug;45(8):1367-1373.

OBJECTIVE: Although extracorporeal membrane oxygenation volume has increased, proficiency in the technology requires extensive training. We compared traditional water-drill-based extracorporeal membrane oxygenation training with simulation-based extracorporeal membrane oxygenation training with the hypothesis that simulation-based training is superior.

DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial.

SETTING: Academic medical center.

SUBJECTS: Pulmonary/critical care fellows.

INTERVENTIONS: Participants had a preintervention simulated extracorporeal membrane oxygenation emergency (Sim1-recirculation) then randomized into simulation and traditional groups. Each group participated in three teaching scenarios, via high-fidelity simulation or via water-drills. After 6 weeks and after 1 year, participants returned for two simulated extracorporeal membrane oxygenation emergencies (Sim2-pump failure and Sim3-access insufficiency). Sim2 was a case encountered during teaching, whereas Sim3 was novel. A critical action, necessary for resolution of each scenario, was preidentified for timing.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Primary outcome was time required to perform critical actions. Twenty-one fellows participated in the study (simulation, 10; traditional, 11). Groups had similar scenario scores (p = 0.4) and times to critical action (p = 0.8) on Sim1. At 6 weeks, both groups had similar scenario scores on Sim2 (p = 0.5), but the simulation group scored higher on Sim3 (p = 0.03). Times to critical actions were shorter in the simulation group during Sim2 (127 vs 174 s, p = 0.004) and Sim3 (159 vs 300 s; p = 0.04). These findings persisted at 1 year.

CONCLUSIONS: In novice critical care fellows, simulation-based extracorporeal membrane oxygenation training is superior to traditional training. Benefits transfer to novel scenarios and are maintained over the long term. Further studies evaluating the utility of simulation in other learner groups and for maintenance of proficiency are required.

Dysglycemia, Glycemic Variability, and Outcome After Cardiac Arrest and Temperature Management at 33°C and 36°C. (Sirignano)

Borgquist O, et al. Dysglycemia, Glycemic Variability, and Outcome After Cardiac Arrest and Temperature Management at 33°C and 36°C. Crit Care Med. 2017 Aug;45(8):1337-1343.

OBJECTIVES: Dysglycemia and glycemic variability are associated with poor outcomes in critically ill patients. Targeted temperature management alters blood glucose homeostasis. We investigated the association between blood glucose concentrations and glycemic variability and the neurologic outcomes of patients randomized to targeted temperature management at 33°C or 36°C after cardiac arrest.

DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of the multicenter TTM-trial. Primary outcome of this analysis was neurologic outcome after 6 months, referred to as “Cerebral Performance Category.”

SETTING: Thirty-six sites in Europe and Australia.

PATIENTS: All 939 patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of presumed cardiac cause that had been included in the TTM-trial.

INTERVENTIONS: Targeted temperature management at 33°C or 36°C.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Nonparametric tests as well as multiple logistic regression and mixed effects logistic regression models were used. Median glucose concentrations on hospital admission differed significantly between Cerebral Performance Category outcomes (p < 0.0001). Hyper- and hypoglycemia were associated with poor neurologic outcome (p = 0.001 and p = 0.054). In the multiple logistic regression models, the median glycemic level was an independent predictor of poor Cerebral Performance Category (Cerebral Performance Category, 3-5) with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.13 in the adjusted model (p = 0.008; 95% CI, 1.03-1.24). It was also a predictor in the mixed model, which served as a sensitivity analysis to adjust for the multiple time points. The proportion of hyperglycemia was higher in the 33°C group compared with the 36°C group.

CONCLUSION: Higher blood glucose levels at admission and during the first 36 hours, and higher glycemic variability, were associated with poor neurologic outcome and death. More patients in the 33°C treatment arm had hyperglycemia.