A review of 5434 percutaneous pediatric central venous catheters inserted by anesthesiologists. (Kamat)

Malbezin S, Gauss T, Smith I, Bruneau B, Mangalsuren N, Diallo T, Skhiri A, Nivoche Y, Dahmani S, Brasher C. A review of 5434 percutaneous pediatric central venous catheters inserted by anesthesiologists. Paediatr Anaesth. 2013 Nov;23(11):974-979.

OBJECTIVE: To review the results of an anesthesiologist led pediatric percutaneous central venous access service.

METHODS: Prospective data on percutaneous pediatric central venous catheter (CVC) insertions were collected over 22 years. Data included age, gender, weight, previous central CVCs, venous thromboses, investigations for great vein patency, type of CVC, external diameter, previous CVC insertions, intended use, operator identity, and the vein into which the CVC was inserted. The default technique was internal jugular vein cannulation using landmark technique (LT). Complication was defined as the following: failure to cannulate any vein, hemothorax, pneumothorax, right atrial perforation, extravenous wire positioning or CVC position and whether the patient was taken back to theater for CVC repositioning.

RESULTS: Five thousand four hundred and thirty-four percutaneous CVC insertion procedures were performed on 3954 patients. One-third involved children <1 year of age (n = 1823: 34%). Five thousand one hundred and twenty-five CVCs (95.3%) were inserted into internal jugular veins. The majority were tunneled CVCs (n = 5190: 96.2%). The perioperative complication rate was 1.3%. Successful cannulation occurred in 99.5% of patients. Failure was more likely in children ❤ kg, during large bore hemodialysis CVC insertions and during the first 4 years of the service – the latter suggesting a learning curve. Ninety-nine percent of CVCs were inserted using LTs.

CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates a high success rate and low complication rate during pediatric percutaneous internal jugular vein CVC insertions by trained anesthesiologists using LTs. Smaller children, hemodialysis CVCs, and the team’s learning curve were identified as risk factors for insertion failure.

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